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Philosophy of Science. Instructor: Julian Hasford Teaching Assistant: Keith Adamson PS398 Qualitative Methods in Psychology January 13, 2009. AGENDA. Glossary: Post-Modernism Review Lecture: Philosophy of Science Memoing Exercise Next Class…. LEARNING OBJECTIVES.

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philosophy of science

Philosophy of Science

Instructor: Julian Hasford

Teaching Assistant: Keith Adamson

PS398 Qualitative Methods in Psychology

January 13, 2009

agenda
AGENDA
  • Glossary: Post-Modernism
  • Review
  • Lecture: Philosophy of Science
  • Memoing Exercise
  • Next Class…
learning objectives
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • By the end of this session, you should be able to:
    • Analyze the main components of qualitative and quantitative research
    • Discuss the philosophical assumptions (and logic) of various scientific paradigms
    • Analyze how philosophical paradigms influence research method and substance
    • Articulate a personal stance
post modernism
POST-MODERNISM
  • Definition
    • Intellectual movement that challenges modernist conceptions (“grand narratives”) of science, truth, and objectivity (Gergen, 2000; Patton, 2002)
    • Language can not fully capture truth or reality (Crisis of Representation)
    • Argues that truth is constructed through language, and language constructed through cultural processes (language games, consensus, power)
    • Science is social constructed
    • Values multiple truths
post modernism1
POST-MODERNISM
  • Methodological/Theoretical Significance
    • Influential in social sciences and humanities (Psychology slower to adopt than other disciplines) (Gergen, 2000)
    • Research focuses on social construction of reality through language, symbols, metaphors, etc.
    • Phenomena treated as text
    • Analysis through deconstruction (take apart text to expose hidden assumptions, contradictions, ideological interests) (Patton, 2002)
post modernism2
POST-MODERNISM
  • Methodological/Theoretical Significance
    • Conclusions are localized, tentative, tolerate dissensus (Johnson & Cassell, 2001)
    • Reflexivity (esp. Epistemological)
    • Influenced discourse analysis and narrative methodological orientations
    • Risk of extreme moral or epistemological relativism, which can justify oppression or undermine value of all knowledge
post modernism3
POST-MODERNISM
  • Example
    • Examines implications of post-modernism for the discipline of work psychology
    • Work psychology dominated by positivism, excludes subjectivity (Qualitative approaches still based on positivist understanding)
    • Limits what is known about work, limits reflexivity in psychology research and practice
    • Postmodernists erode apparently self-evident meta-narratives through:
      • Identifying particular ways of seeing and acting that a discourse takes and excludes;
      • Analysing social processes that make it possible for such a discourse to be historically constituted
      • Analysing how it is reconstituted into new discursive formations
      • Identifying the effects of such a discourse upon people.
post modernism4
POST-MODERNISM
  • Example
    • Discipline and sub-disciplines of work psychology seen as discourses that are constructed to define legitimate work psychology that exclude non-qualified members and restrict acceptable forms of knowledge
    • Phenomena such as stress, personality, motivation not seen as real objects, but as linguistic constructs taken to be real and produced by discipline
      • Examine how constructs stress come about (stressologists industry)
    • Human Resource discourse found to reflect masculine regimes of rationality that exclude and suppress women as irrational (management selection tests based on masculine norms)
post modernism5
POST-MODERNISM
  • References

Gergen, K. (2000). Psychology in postmodern context. American Psychologist, 56(10), 803-813.

Johnson, P. & Cassell, C. (2001). Epistemology and work psychology: New agendas. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 125-143

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

re view
RE(VIEW)
  • Strategies of Research (Methodologies)
    • Goals
    • Design Strategies
      • Control over phenomena?
      • Use of predetermined categories?
      • Sampling?
    • Data Collection Strategies
      • Nature of data and instruments?
      • Research Relationship?
    • Analysis Strategies
      • Reasoning process?
      • Emphasis? Goals?
      • Role of researcher in analysis?
re view1
RE(VIEW)
  • Quantitative Strategy
    • Goals
    • Design Strategies
      • Experiment
      • Randomization
      • Probability Sampling
    • Data Collection Strategies
      • Quantitative Data
      • Distance & Objectivity
      • Reductionist
    • Analysis Strategies
      • Hypothetical-Deductive: begins with hypotheses
      • Statistical verification & Generalization
      • Reductionist & Mechanistic
      • Context-free (Control)
re view2
RE(VIEW)
  • Qualitative Strategies
    • Goals
    • Design Strategies
      • Naturalistic
      • Emergent/flexible
      • Purposeful sampling
    • Data Collection Strategies
      • Qualitative data
      • Personal engagement
      • Empathic neutrality
      • Dynamic Systems
    • Analysis Strategies
      • Unique case orientation
      • Inductive analysis & Creative synthesis
      • Holistic
      • Context
      • Reflexivity
philosophy of science1
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • What is philosophy of science?
    • Conceptual roots undergirding the quest for knowledge
    • Fundamental beliefs or assumptions about
      • Ontology (the nature of reality and being)
      • Epistemology (the study of knowledge)
      • Axiology (the role of values in the research process)
      • Methodology (the process and procedures of research)
      • Rhetorical structure (the language of the research) and presentation of the research)
philosophy of science2
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Why think about philosophy of science?
    • Increases clarity of research purpose
    • Enhances reflexivity
    • Broadens and deepens theoretical sensitivity
    • Increases quality and rigor
philosophy of science3
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Science
    • Definition
      • Systematic collection and analysis of data
      • Create knowledge and solve problems
    • Empiricism
philosophy of science4
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Paradigms
    • Set of interrelated assumptions about the world which provides a philosophical and conceptual framework for the organized study of that world (Filstead, 1979 in Patton, 2002)
      • Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology, Axiology, Rhetorical Structure
    • Major Paradigms
      • Reality-oriented
      • Social Constructionist
      • Critical-Ideological
philosophy of science5
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Reality-oriented Paradigms
    • Belief in external reality, where events result from underlying mechanisms or structures
    • Objectivity is desirable
    • Goals are explanation, laws, prediction, control
    • Variations
      • Positivism (Comte)
        • Real knowledge based on claims that are verifiable by direct experience (mathematical formulas); distinguish “positive knowledge” (empirically based) from theology and metaphysics (based on fallible human reason and belief)
      • Post-positivist (Popper)
        • Human ability to gain real knowledge is limited. Falsification over verification as criteria for assessing claims
      • Realism
        • Similar to post-positivism. Recognize subjectivity and takes pragmatic rather formalistic approach to research. No difference between qualitative and quantitative methods.
philosophy of science6
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Social Constructionist Paradigms
    • Believe in multiple, equally valid realities (subjective and socially constructed)
    • Goals are understanding lived experience (verstehen)
    • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
philosophy of science7
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Critical Paradigms

- Believe that reality mediated by power relations within social, historical contexts

    • Goals are emancipation and transformation
philosophy of science8
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Ontology
    • Focus
      • Nature of being and reality
      • What can be known
    • Paradigmatic
      • Positivism: One true external reality, operates by universal laws, can be known with some certainty
      • Constructivism
      • Critical
philosophy of science9
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Epistemology
    • Focus
      • Theories of Knowledge (how we know, who can know)
      • Relationship between Knower and Known
    • Paradigmatic
      • Positivism
      • Constructivism
      • Critical
philosophy of science10
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Methodology (and Methods)
    • Focus
      • The way of doing research (Design, Data Collection, Analysis)
      • Methods are the how of doing research
    • Paradigmatic
      • Positivism
      • Constructivism
      • Critical
philosophy of science11
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Axiology
    • Focus
      • The role of values in research
      • Standpoint, Research Relationship
    • Paradigmatic
      • Positivism
      • Constructivism
      • Critical
philosophy of science12
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Rhetorical Structure
    • Focus
      • Language
      • Voice
    • Paradigmatic
      • Positivism
      • Constructivism
      • Critical
philosophy of science13
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Video
    • Questions
      • What are the author’s claims?
      • What epistemological assumptions inform the author’s claims?
      • What epistemological assumptions are the hosts criticisms based upon?
      • Do you agree with the epistemological basis of the author’s claims and/or the hosts’ criticisms?
philosophy of science15
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
  • Video
    • Questions
      • What are the author’s claims?
      • What epistemological assumptions inform the author’s claims?
      • What epistemological assumptions are the hosts criticisms based upon?
      • Do you agree with the epistemological basis of the author’s claims and/or the hosts’ criticisms?
exercise
EXERCISE
  • Memoing
    • Short written documents that are produced throughout qualitative research
      • Document researcher’s analytical process
      • Stimulates reflection and analysis
      • Promote creative insights through brainstorming and freewriting
      • Develop writing skills
exercise1
EXERCISE
  • Memoing
    • Format
      • Typed
      • ~1 page (single-spaced)
      • Title (indicates content) and date
      • Sentence form. Should be coherent.
exercise2
EXERCISE
  • Instructions
    • Write memo on following questions
      • What paradigm do you identify most closely with? Why?
      • How would that paradigm influence our approach to studying money in this class?
        • Purpose, Methodology, Axiology
      • What are some limitations to what we can know using this approach?
    • Turn to partner and discuss your thoughts
next class
NEXT CLASS…
  • Theoretical Orientations
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