Folds, Faults and Other Records of Deformation. Significance to CCS. Fundamental to trapping configuration Important for caprock integrity. Stress. Force per unit area Compression Tension (rare) Shearing. Or, principal compressive stress vertical. Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation.
Bending of rocks, often as a result of compression
Fractures in rock
1964 Alaska (M 9.2) Hanning Bay fault scarp on Montague Island. Vertical displacement 12 - 14 feet. (USGS photo)