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Folds, Faults and Other Records of Deformation. Significance to CCS. Fundamental to trapping configuration Important for caprock integrity. Stress. Force per unit area Compression Tension (rare) Shearing. Or, principal compressive stress vertical. Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation.

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Presentation Transcript
significance to ccs
Significance to CCS
  • Fundamental to trapping configuration
  • Important for caprock integrity
stress
Stress
  • Force per unit area
    • Compression
    • Tension (rare)
    • Shearing
slide6

Or, principal

compressive

stress vertical

brittle versus ductile deformation
Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation
  • Brittle: material fractures (breaks)
brittle versus ductile deformation1
Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation
  • Brittle: material fractures (breaks)
  • Ductile: plastic deformation, no fractures
brittle versus ductile deformation2
Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation
  • Brittle: material fractures (breaks)
  • Ductile: plastic deformation, no fractures
  • Brittle favored by:
brittle versus ductile deformation3
Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation
  • Brittle: material fractures (breaks)
  • Ductile: plastic deformation, no fractures
  • Brittle favored by:
    • low temperatures
brittle versus ductile deformation4
Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation
  • Brittle: material fractures (breaks)
  • Ductile: plastic deformation, no fractures
  • Brittle favored by:
    • low temperatures
    • low confining pressures
slide14

High confining

pressure

Low confining

pressure

Undeformed

brittle versus ductile deformation5
Brittle Versus Ductile Deformation
  • Brittle: material fractures (breaks)
  • Ductile: plastic deformation, no fractures
  • Brittle favored by:
    • low temperatures
    • low confining pressures
    • high strain rates
  • Rock type
mapping geologic structures1
Mapping Geologic Structures
  • Strike
  • Dip
  • Constructing cross sections
folds
Folds

Bending of rocks, often as a result of compression

slide38

Symmetrical, Asymmetrical, Overturned

Limbs of

equal length

Limbs of

unequal length

faults and joints
Faults and Joints

Fractures in rock

joints
Joints
  • No visible displacement
  • Types
    • Unloading (exfoliation)
joints1
Joints
  • No visible displacement
  • Types
    • Unloading (exfoliation)
    • Cooling joints
joints2
Joints
  • No visible displacement
  • Types
    • Unloading (exfoliation)
    • Cooling joints
    • Regional (tectonic) joints
faults
Faults
  • Visible displacement
  • Hanging wall and footwall
faults1
Faults
  • Visible displacement
  • Hanging wall and footwall
  • Dip-slip faults
    • Normal
faults2
Faults
  • Visible displacement
  • Hanging wall and footwall
  • Dip-slip faults
    • Normal
    • Reverse
faults3
Faults
  • Visible displacement
  • Hanging wall and footwall
  • Dip-slip faults
    • Normal
    • Reverse
    • Thrust
faults4
Faults
  • Visible displacement
  • Hanging wall and footwall
  • Dip-slip faults
    • Normal
    • Reverse
    • Thrust
  • Strike-slip faults
    • Left lateral
    • Right lateral
faults5
Faults
  • Visible displacement
  • Hanging wall and footwall
  • Dip-slip faults
    • Normal
    • Reverse
    • Thrust
  • Strike-slip faults
    • Left lateral
    • Right lateral
  • Oblique-slip faults
rocks textures created by faulting
Rocks/textures created by faulting
  • Fault breccia (visible angular fragments)
  • Fault gouge (incohesive, fine powder)
  • Mylonites (ductile flow/recrystallization)
  • Pseudotachylites (frictional melting)
features associated with fault planes
Features associated with fault planes
  • Slickensides (grooves or striations)
  • "Drag" folds
slide102

1964 Alaska (M 9.2) Hanning Bay fault scarp on Montague Island. Vertical displacement 12 - 14 feet. (USGS photo)