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Faults and Folds. Bends and Breaks. First, rocks are laid down and organized in units. Sedimentary rocks are laid down in layers like a cake by wind and water. This process is called DEPOSTION Igneous rocks are spread over large areas like maple syrup by VOLCANIC ACTIVITY.

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faults and folds

Faults and Folds

Bends and Breaks

first rocks are laid down and organized in units
First, rocks are laid down and organized in units.
  • Sedimentary rocks are laid down in layers like a cake by wind and water. This process is called DEPOSTION
  • Igneous rocks are spread over large areas like maple syrup by VOLCANIC ACTIVITY.
  • Metamorphic rocks gradually change from one place to the next by extreme geologic events
  • Rock units and large areas that consist of one kind of rock created by geologic events that happened millions of years ago.
  • You can walk for miles and miles and just see one kind of rock.
fracture and flow
FRACTURE and FLOW

Fracture

Flow

Flow happens when rocks are deep UNDERGROUND and they are very HOT.

Fracture is what happens when rocks BEND!

Flow = Folds

  • Fracture happens when rocks are at the EARTH’S SURFACE and they are COOL.
  • Fracture is what happens when rocks BREAK!
  • Fracture = Faults
forces in the earth
Forces in the Earth
  • Faults and folds happen when masses of rock are colliding, being pulled apart, or sliding next to each other.
  • Faults and folds happen when there are COMPRESION, TENSION or SHEAR forces.
  • COMPRESSION happens when two plates collide (Are pressed together)
  • TENSION happens when two plates SEPARATE (are pulled apart)
  • SHEAR happens when two plates slide past each other
let s see this in action
Let’s see this in action

http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate5.htm

faults
FAULTS

Faults are the result of FRACTURE. They are the result of forces in the earth that BREAK rocks. Fracture happens when rocks are cool.

There are 3 major types of faults:

  • Normal = Compression
  • Reverse = Tension
  • Slip-strike = Sheer
normal fault
Normal Fault
  • Normal faults occur when two plates PULL AWAY from one each other.
  • They are caused by TENSION forces
reverse fault
Reverse Fault
  • Reverse faults occur when two plates are PUSHED together
  • Reverse Faults are caused by TENSION forces
strike slip faults
Strike-Slip Faults
  • Strike-Slip faults occur when two plates slide past each other
  • Strike-Slip faults are caused by SHEAR forces
let s see it in action
Let’s see it in action:

http://www.iris.washington.edu/gifs/animations/faults.htm

folds
Folds

Folds are the result of FLOW. They are caused by the same forces as faults, except they happen deep UNDERGROUND where it is very hot. Because it is hot, the rock bends instead of breaking.

There are two parts to a fold:

The ANTICLINE is the top of the fold (think: ANTHILL)

The SYNCLINE is the bottom of the fold (think: SIN)

anticlines a n d synclines
ANTICLINES andsynclines
  • Anticlines are at the top (they are the Anthills)
  • Synclines are at the bottom (sin = hell = bott0m)