Creativity and Creative Problem Solving. Minder Chen Professor of MIS California State University Channel Islands Minder.email@example.com. Creativity and Innovation.
Creativity and Creative Problem Solving Minder Chen Professor of MIS California State University Channel Islands Minder.firstname.lastname@example.org
Creativity and Innovation Creativity is simply the production of novel, appropriate ideas in any realm of human activity, from science, to the arts, to education, to business, to everyday life. The ideas must be novel—different from what's been done before—but they can't be simply bizarre; they must be appropriate to the problem or opportunity presented. Creativity is the first step in innovation, which is the successful implementation of those novel, appropriate ideas.
Exercise Brainstorm creativity and innovation in various areas (science, business) They can be discoveries, inventions, or innovations.
The Secret Formula for Creativity What Makes the Soup So Good?
Source: Teresa Amabile, Growing Up Creative: Nurturing a Lifetime of Creativity, 1989.
Three Components of Creativity • Upend the status quo • Persevere through dry spells (incubation) • Passion • Interest Managers influence these components (particularly motivation) through workplace practices and conditions. Source: Teresa Amabile, "How to Kill Activity," Harvard Business Review, Sep/Oct, 1998, Vol. 76 Issue 5, pp. 76-87. Source: (link)
Motivations for Creativity Intrinsic motivation: the motivation to work on something because it is interesting, involving, exciting, satisfying, or personally challenging. Extrinsic motivation: Expected evaluation, surveillance, competition with peers, dictates from superiors, or the promise of rewards. Intrinsic Motivation Principle of Creativity: There is abundant evidence that people will be most creative when they are primarily intrinsically motivated, rather than extrinsically motivated.
Creative Thinking Creative thinking depends to some extent on personality characteristics related to • Independence • Self-discipline • Orientation toward risk-taking • Tolerance for ambiguity • Perseverance in the face of frustration, and • A relative lack of concern for social approval
Compassion and Hard Working The novelist John Irving, in explaining his motivation to write for up to 14 hours in a single day, said, "The unspoken factor is love. The reason I can work so hard at my writing is that it's not work for me."
Managing Creativity • Teresa Amabile’s research has identified six general categories of managerial practice that affect creativity: • Challenge • Freedom • Resources • Work-Group Features • Supervisory Encouragement • Organizational Support.
Creativity vs. Productivity Creativity is undermined unintentionally every day in work environments that were established – for entirely good reasons – to maximize business imperatives such as co-ordination, productivity, and control.
Fresh Eyes: Beginner’s Mind We shall not cease from explorationAnd the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time. • TS Eliot’s poem “Little Gidding” • “You should never cease from exploration, and at the end of all exploring you arrive where you started and know the place for the very first time.” • Satya Nadella, Microsoft CEO, March 28, 2014 announcing Office for iPad
Impact of a Changing World in the 21st Century • “The formulation of the problem is often more essential than the solution.” - Einstein • Knowledge has become a free commodity --growing exponentially, changing constantly – From scrolls to tablets to books to the internet • As a result, all students need new skills for continuous learning, careers, and citizenship • “Digital natives” are differently motivated to learn than digital immigrants
Try and Error “Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep.” - Scott Adams
Ideas and Creativity • “Ideas are cheap.” • Ideas aren’t cheap at all—they’re free. • Tina Seeling • “The best way to predict the future is to invent it.” • Alan Kay • We are all inventors of our own future. And creativity is at the heart of invention. • Tina Seeling
Knowing vs. Doing http://www.tonywagner.com/wp-content/uploads/creating-innovators-2-12.pdf • So What? Now What? • The World No Longer Cares What You Know . . . • The World Cares What You Can Do With What You Know: • Do you have the skill? • Do you have the will?
The Seven Survival Skills • Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving • Collaboration Across Networks and Leading by Influence • Agility and Adaptability • Initiative and Entrepreneurialism • Effective Oral and Written Communication • Accessing and Analyzing Information • Curiosity and Imagination
Creating Innovators Play to Passion to Purpose = Perseverance The resilience and self-confidence that comes from surviving “failure” http://www.tonywagner.com/wp-content/uploads/creating-innovators-2-12.pdf http://www.tonywagner.com/wp-content/uploads/calling-all-innovators-ed-leadership-4-12.pdf
5 “Habits of Mind”: Learning to Ask The Right Questions • Weighing Evidence • How do we know what’s true and false? What is the evidence, and is it credible? • Awareness of Varying Viewpoints • What viewpoint are we hearing? Who is the author, and what are his or her intentions? How might it look to someone with a different history? • Seeing Connections/Cause & Effect • Is there a pattern? How are things connected? Where have we seen this before? • Speculating on Possibilities/Conjecture • What if? Supposing that? Can we imagine alternatives? • Assessing Value—Both Socially and Personally • What difference does it make? Who cares? So what? From www.missionhillschool.org
Trial and Error http://www.ideo.com/images/uploads/news/pdfs/hemispheres_1.pdf • "I begin with an idea, and then it becomes something else." - Pablo Picasso • “Fail often to succeed sooner.” - IDEO • “There is no failure here, just iteration.”
Creativity and Performance Why are we so insistent on high performance? Source: NetFlix Culture (link) In procedural work, the best are 2x better than the average. In creative/inventive work, the best are 10x better than the average, so huge premium on creating effective teams of the best
7 Recurring Patterns in the Innovations • Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From, The Adjacent Possible Liquid Networks The Slow Hunch Serendipity Error Exaptation Platforms
Jordan’s 4 COREConcepts for Creativity Source: Aha! 10 Ways to Free Your Creative Spirit and Find Your Great Ideas by Jordan Ayan
Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) • Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making • Evaluating - Checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring • Analyzing - Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating • Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing • Understanding - Interpreting, Summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying • Remembering - Recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding Source: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom%27s+-+Introduction
Motivating Creativity in Organizations Teresa M Amabile, "Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do" California Management Review, Fall 1997. (link)
Reigniting Creativity in Business Alan Iny: Reigniting Creativity in Business (video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJ1eRGiBo_4
What Happen to Our Creativity? http://www.fastcoexist.com/3018877/can-playing-with-legos-make-you-more-creative Kids are taught to learn by understanding “the one right answer” they need to find, and what they need to do to find it. (On tests of how kids do at brainstorming ideas, 98% of three-year-olds register as “creative geniuses.” By the time they are 25? Only 2%). Check this out http://seriousplay.com/19483/HOW%20TO%20GET%20IT
Culture of Creativity A model of culture (adapted from Sørensen et al., 2010) Can Playing With Lego Make You More Creative? (link) watch the video in this posting Lego Foundation on Creativity (link) REPORT: Click here to access our latest report, Cultures of Creativity The creative mindset is supported when there are stimulating environments and resources (having), when there is a lot of inspirational activity and the engaging support of peers and mentors (doing), when there is an ethos which supports the passions of makers (being), and where there is a solid body of expertise and knowledge, and support for learning (knowing).
Four Essential Dimensions of Culture HAVING is about the resources which a culture presents us with, including artifacts, materials, tools, media, and environments. DOING is about the activities, relationships and practices which bring a culture to life. BEING is about the identities of individuals and groups, and their shared traditions, habits and states of mind. KNOWING is about the culture’s ways of making sense of things.
Four Key Processes PLAYING — which connects being (identity and selfhood) with doing (creative action) MAKING — which connects doing (creative action) with having (available materials) SHARING — which connects having (things to share) with knowing (knowledge and experience) THINKING — which connects knowing (knowledge and experience) with being (identity and selfhood)
“Vision is not only a founding idea but necessarily the resolution to ensure its realization” - Jonathan Ive, Apple Computer Inc. “The ability to use foresight in order to make wise, insightful and imaginative choices is one of the most powerful capabilities of organizations in a global economy. Present actions are guided by our interpretation of the past , and by our anticipation of, or aspiration for, the future.” • Source: Peter McGrory, Aalto University
Trends Source: Nokia Consumer trends research/ 07-06-2004/Elise Levanto
Aim to Innovate: maximize your creativity at work Evangelia G. Chrysikou, "Your Creative Brain at Work,"Scientific American Mind, Vol. 23, 24 - 31 (2012) (pdf version, link) Become an expert. Observe. Know your audience. Step out of your comfort zone. Be willing to work alone. Talk to outsiders about your work. Have fun. Take a nap or let your mind wander. Take a break. Challenge yourself.
Breaking the Rules http://www.nature.com/scientificamericanmind/journal/v23/n3/full/scientificamericanmind0712-24.html Innovation matters in an enormous variety of professions. It elevates the careers of chefs, university presidents, psychotherapists, police detectives, journalists, teachers, engineers, architects, attorneys and surgeons, among other professionals. Although creativity was long considered a gift of a select minority, psychologists have now revealed its seeds in mental processes, such as decision making, language and memory, that all of us possess. Techniques for boosting creative potential may involve breaking down established ways of viewing the world or invoking unconscious thought processes.
Where Good Ideas Come From Ted Talk video • Innovations don’t come from individuals working alone. • Innovations come from an environment that fosters the cross pollination of hunches and small innovations. • Innovations come from a community of thinkers and doers in close proximity to each others thinking. • We are often better served by connecting ideas than we are by protecting them. • Chance favors the connected mind • Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NugRZGDbPFU based on his book
Encouraging Serendipity: the Chance Route to Innovation • Take a break • Stop searching in the obvious place: • Chance encounters • Expand your mind • Variety is the spice of life • Source: Link
Creativity Cracking Creativity: The Secrets of Creative Genius By Michael Michalko Seeing What No One Else Is Seeing Knowing How to See Strategy Making Your Thought Visible Thinking What No One Else Is Thinking Thinking Fluently Making Novel Combinations Connecting the Unconnected Looking at the Other Side Looking in Other Worlds Finding What You’re Not Looking For Awakening the Collaborative Spirit
Making Novel Combination 六爻相雜，唯其時物也。 道有變動，故曰爻；爻有等，故曰物；物相雜，故曰文；文不當，故吉凶生焉。
Steps to a Creative Mind-set (link) Wonderment. Try to retain a spirit of discovery, a childlike curiosity about the world. And question understandings that others consider obvious. Motivation. As soon as a spark of interest arises in something, follow it. Intellectual courage. Strive to think outside accepted principles and habitual perspectives such as “We’ve always done it that way.” Relaxation. Take the time to daydream and ponder, because that is often when the best ideas arise. Look for ways to relax and consciously put them into practice.
All of us can call up originality from within our minds through training and encouragement. Schools place overwhelming emphasis on solving problems correctly, not creatively. Afflicted people lose regard for social norms, yet this lack of inhibition allows artistry to bloom.