slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Scaffolding Children’s Learning at Small-Group Time PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Scaffolding Children’s Learning at Small-Group Time

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 85

Scaffolding Children’s Learning at Small-Group Time - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 136 Views
  • Uploaded on

Scaffolding Children’s Learning at Small-Group Time. Objectives. Participants will be able to: State the rationale for a supportive climate during small-group time (SGT). Describe each component of a HighScope SGT.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Scaffolding Children’s Learning at Small-Group Time' - wade-finch


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives

Participants will be able to:

State the rationale for a supportive climate during small-group time (SGT).

Describe each component of a HighScope SGT.

Develop opening statements to help focus children’s interests and attention on the SGT activity.

3

the highscope climate for learning
The HighScope Climate For Learning

In all classrooms, the climate for learning falls somewhere on this continuum; ranging from laissez-faireto supportiveto directive.

Let’s take a closer look at each

of these climates…

Laissez-Faire Supportive Directive

5

slide6

Directive: Controlling Climate

Teachers control the

activities and play.

Teachers instruct and talk.

Children listen and follow

directions.

During work time,

directive teachers set out

activities for children to do

and make sure each child

completes them correctly.

Teachers act as classroom

directors, over-controlling

all aspects of the child’s

day.

Adults are

primarily in

control.

Laissez-Faire Supportive Directive

slide7

Laissez-Faire: Permissive Climate

Laissez-faire means

“hands off” in French.

Teachers let children play

by themselves, they

don’t get involved.

Teachers act as “safety

monitors,” providing

supervision if a

problem arises.

During work time,

laissez-faire teachers do

paperwork, or passively

observe children’s play.

Children are

primarily in

control.

Laissez-Faire Supportive Directive

slide8

Supportive: Partnership Climate

Teachers and children

are partners in play

and learning.

Teachers make adult-sized

decisions, while children

make child-sized choices.

Adults and children

share control.

Teachers value

children’s active

learning, consciously

building in opportunities

to share control.

During work time, supportive

teachers enter into children’s

play, following their interests

and scaffolding their learning.

Laissez-Faire Supportive Directive

slide9

Small-Group Time Climates for Learning

During SGT, laissez-faire

teachers give children the

materials, then sit back and

watch until it’s over.

During SGT, supportive teachers scaffold each child’s learning and make the activity worthwhile and appropriate for all.

During SGT, the curriculum content comes from directive teachers. Children drill and practice to learn exactly what the teacher wants.

Laissez-Faire Supportive Directive

discussion
Discussion

Which type of climate has the most positives from your experience?

Which has the most negatives?

Which type of climate do you want for your children? Why?

10

slide11

Small-Group Time Climates for Learning

During SGT, laissez-faire

teachers give children the

materials, then sit back and

watch until it’s over.

During SGT, supportive teachers scaffold each child’s learning and make the activity worthwhile and appropriate for all.

During SGT, the curriculum content comes from directive teachers. Children drill and practice to learn exactly what the teacher wants.

HighScope SGTs

are conducted

in a SUPPORTIVE

CLIMATE!!!

HighScope SGTs

include all the

ingredients of

ACTIVE

LEARNING!!!

Laissez-Faire Supportive Directive

small group time
Small-Group Time

Small-group times (SGT) are adult-initiated activities during which children explore materials in their own way with the adult sharing the excitement of their discoveries.

13

highscope small group times
HighScope Small-Group Times

Are adult initiated.

That is, the teacher plans the materials and the learning experience based on content, children’s interests and levels of development.

15

slide17

Active Learning at Small-Group Time

5 Ingredients

of Active Learning

What Children do at

HighScope Small-Group Times

Materials

Children use their own set of materials.

Manipulation

Children experiment with the materials,

using them in ways that make sense

to them (which may or not be what the

teacher originally had in mind.)

Choice

Child Thought

and Language

Children talk about their ideas and

discoveries.

Adult Scaffolding

Each child is supported by the teacher,

at their level of development.

slide18

Now I Get It!!!

  • In HighScope Small-Group Times:
  • Teachers plan the SGT activity.
  • Children still engage in all the ingredients
  • of active learning!
importance of small group time builds on children s strengths
Importance of Small-Group Time: Builds on Children’s Strengths

SGTs are planned around children’s emerging abilities.

Adults scaffold and extend each child’s learning.

As children gain confidence in their abilities, they are willing to take on new challenges.

Kyra experiments until she discovers that by stacking the narrower cylinder blocks on top, they stay balanced.

importance of small group time provides new experiences
Importance of Small-Group Time:Provides New Experiences

SGTs can introduce children to materials and experiences they might otherwise miss.

Teachers can use SGTs to appropriately build in content experiences.

Do you have a child

who always plays in the

same area? SGTs help to

provide a well-rounded

experience.

Kobe is mixing colors and painting a shoebox, something he wouldn’t normally choose to do at work time.

20

importance of small group time provides regular peer interactions
Importance of Small-Group Time:Provides Regular Peer Interactions

SGTs provide children with the opportunity to form stable relationships.

Children begin to appreciate the qualities and strengths of others in their group.

Children can develop confidence speaking to this smaller group of peers.

High/Scope recommends groups stay together for 2-3 months.

Talking about their experiences with babies as they wash dolls helps this group of children see their similarities and grow together as friends.

importance of small group time teachers know their group
Importance of Small-Group Time:Teachers Know Their Group

SGT also gives the teacher the opportunity to observe and interact daily with the same children, learning their abilities and interests.

Brianna’s teacher observes with interest, as she covers her hands with paint – a first for Brianna, who usually doesn’t like to get her hands “messy.”

22

importance of small group time teachers use support strategies
Importance of Small-Group Time:Teachers Use Support Strategies

We all need opportunities to practice and refine our skills. SGT gives teachers the opportunity to practice their adult-child interaction strategies in a stable setting.

Nygel wanted to paint all sides of his tube. His teacher Sue, stabilizes the tube while talking with Nygel about the paint color he created.

23

creating your small groups
Creating Your Small-Groups

All small groups meet at the same time, each group of children with their same classroom adult.

To determine group size, divide the number of classroom adults by the number of children.

2 adults (1 teacher, 1 assistant teacher) and 18 children. Each group has 9 children.

3 adults (1 teacher and 2 aides) and 21 children. Each group has 7 children.

Balance groups by sex (boys and girls), age and temperament.

Place children who play together in the same group.

TIP:

You should keep the

same groups for planning,

recall, SGT, and meals.

24

keeping groups consistent
Keeping Groups Consistent
  • All small groups meet at the same time, each group of children with their classroom adult.
  • Groups (children and the teacher) should stay together for 2-3 months.
  • Always meet in the same place.
    • If you are holding small group in a different place (like the block area), meet in your normal spot first, and then move as a group.
  • Post a list of the group’s names and letter-linked symbols by your meeting place.
overview of the components
Overview of the Components
  • Beginning
    • Introduce the activity with an opening statement.
  • Middle
    • Active learning and scaffolding.
  • End
    • Bring the activity to a close and transition to the next part of your routine.
before your small group time prepare materials ahead of time
Before Your Small-Group Time, Prepare Materials Ahead of Time
  • Review your plan.
  • Gather a set of materials for each child and for yourself and sort them into individual containers..
    • For example; scissors, glue stick, and paper scraps in each basket for an art-focused SGT.
before your small group time prepare materials ahead of time1
Before Your Small-Group Time, Prepare Materials Ahead of Time
  • Also have back-up materials ready.
  • Back-up materials are extra materials that you place in the center of the table for anyone in the group to use as needed.
    • For example; more paper scraps, yarn, and feathers for that art-focused SGT.
  • Place materials within easy access of your SG meeting place.
slide29

Trays

  • Use small baskets, yogurt containers,
  • trays, lunch bags, shoe boxes, etc.
  • to hold a set of materials for each
  • child and for yourself.

Tubs

Baskets

preparing ahead of time has benefits
Preparing Ahead of Time Has Benefits!
  • Cuts down on wait time.
  • Makes materials easy to distribute to the children.
  • Ensures that each child will have what he or she needs.
slide31

SGT: The Beginning

Small-Group Time

Beginning

beginning getting the activity started
Beginning: Getting the Activity Started
  • Have materials ready ahead of time.
  • Use an opening statement to introduce the activity or materials to the children.
  • Give children their own set of materials and let them begin working immediately.
opening statements
Opening Statements
  • Opening statements serve to introduce the activity to the children.
  • Opening statements capture children’s attention to help them get interested and engaged with the materials.
opening statements cont
Opening Statements (cont.)
  • There are four types of opening statements typically used at small-group time:
    • Describe the materials.
    • Connect the materials to children’s previous play or interests.
    • A short, simple, open-ended story using the materials.
    • Help to focus on a content area (KDI or COR item)
slide35

Same SGT, 4 Different Opening Statements

Connect the activity to

children’s interests.

“Yesterday, during work time, Amaia and Jordyn wrote some letters on our message board. Today, I thought it would be fun for us to write on our own message boards. Let’s see what you can do.”

“In your baskets, you’ll find some special markers and white drawing boards. When you are done drawing, see what happens when you wipe your board with your

cloth.”

Simply describe the

materials.

“We always have drawings on our message board, and sometimes we also have letters. Today for

small-group time, you each have your own message board. I’m curious to see what letters you write.”

Draw attention

to a content focus.

“Once upon a time, there were some letters playing on a board. Soon, more and more of their letter

friends joined them. Here are some markers and boards you can use to make your own letter stories.”

A short, simple story.

slide36

Small-Group Time

Beginning

Middle

SGT: The Middle

middle active learning at it s best
Middle: Active Learning at It’s Best
  • Watch what individual children do with the materials.
  • Move from child to child.
  • Listen to what children say about what they are doing.
  • Have a set of materials for yourself, imitate or copy what you see children doing.
middle active learning at it s best1
Middle: Active Learning at It’s Best
  • Talk with children about what they are doing.
  • Refer children to each other for ideas and assistance.
  • Bring out back-up materials as needed.
  • Scaffold children’s learning (we’ll talk about this strategy in the afternoon).
slide39

Observe what children do with the materials.

Use materials yourself.

Imitate children’s actions.

Illustrations of Strategies Used in the Middle

slide40

Move from child to child to give individual support.

Listen to what children say.

Engage in conversations.

Illustrations of Strategies Used in the Middle

slide41

Move from child to child.

Support children’s ideas.

Listen to what children say.

Connect children together in conversations.

Illustrations of Strategies Used in the Middle

slide42

Move from child to child.

Be ready for children to use materials in unexpected ways.

Converse with children, using a variety of interaction strategies.

Illustrations of Strategies Used in the Middle

slide43

Listen to what children say about their ideas and work.

Converse with children.

Refer children to each other for problem solving.

Illustrations of Strategies Used in the Middle

slide44

Small-Group Time

Beginning

Middle

End

SGT: The End

end bringing sgt to a close
End: Bringing SGT to a Close

Give children a three-minute warning before ending the activity.

Encourage children to help you clean up the materials.

Give children concrete suggestions about where to put materials and/or what they can do.

Remind children where they can find the materials if they want to use them again at work time.

Plan a way for children to transition to the next part of your daily routine.

45

slide46

Phrases Heard During the End of SGT

“It’s almost time to go outside. You can put the magnets in this basket and the paper clips go here.”

“In three more minutes it will be time to put the blocks away.”

“We’ll put the play dough tub right here on the art shelf. If you want to make a plan to use it tomorrow at work time, this is where you can find it.”

“After you put your frogs in this basket, hop to your cubbies and put your coats on.”

slide47

The Components of SGT

Small-Group Time

Beginning

Middle

End

objectives1
Objectives
  • Participants will be able to:
  • Plan SGTs based on the sources of ideas.
  • Define scaffolding.
  • Describe the 4 steps to scaffold early learning.
  • Use scaffolding strategies to support and extend children’s learning.
sources of ideas
Sources of Ideas

A concern expressed by many who are learning about SGTs is:

“Where do you get your ideas when planning small-group times?”

Here are four sources that you can use:

Content areas

Children’s interests

New and unexplored materials

Local traditions

50

slide51

4 Sources for SGT Planning

Content Areas

(KDIs & COR)

Children’s

Interests

Local

Traditions

New and

Unexplored

Materials

content areas
Content Areas

Always think content!

Content areas would include the Key Developmental Indicators and COR items.

Could be emerging content

Could be content you have not yet seen

Content Areas

52

slide53

SGT Idea:

Tell a little story about frogs hopping on paths – and the paths had patterns – red, blue, red, blue, etc. Give children baskets with several frogs and small paper squares (red, blue and yellow) and encourage them to make their own pattern paths for their frogs to hop down.

Content Area Example

REMEMBER!

Even though this SGT was planned

around patterning, it’s important to

accept the individual ways that

children respond to the materials;

some children might sort the paper

squares, some children might make

designs with them, and

some children might make

stories about their frogs.

THIS IS OK!!!

Content Areas

  • At work time, the teacher noticed how Carlee arranged these snap-together pieces. It looked like she had several patterns:
  • blue-white-blue-white
  • red-light blue-yellow-tan
  • This made the teacher want to support Carlee’s interest in patterns.
  • It also made him curious about what other children might do with patterns.
children s interests
Children’s Interests

Think about:

what children like to do,

the materials they like to use,

and how they interact and play with each other

SGTs around children’s interests can be a child’s motivation for initially getting engaged with the materials.

Interests should always be layered on to the content area you wish to focus on.

Children’s

Interests

54

slide55

2nd SGT Idea: Tell a little story about cars parking in the garage in patterns – red, blue, red, blue, etc. Give children a carpet square for their garage and baskets with cars of three colors (i.e., red, blue and yellow). Encourage the children to make their own patterns in their garages.

Content Areas

Children’s

Interests

Layering on Children’s Interests Example

+

REMEMBER!

Even though this SGT was planned

around patterning, no matter how the

children respond to the materials, the

supportive teacher will scaffold their ideas,

at their levels of development!

At work time, the teacher noticed Carlee’s patterning (as described previously).

He also noticed that Alexis was playing with the cars – a favorite activity of hers. She loves anything to do with cars. Today, she races them down tracks. Alexis has been having a difficult time getting engaged at SGT.

Here’s his idea about how to layer on Alexis’s interest in cars with the content area of patterning.

new and unexplored materials
New and Unexplored Materials

Introduce materials new to the classroom during SGT.

This gives children the chance to try out the materials and to help decide where they are going to be stored.

This encourages a supportive climate of shared control as the teachers and children make changes in the environment together.

New and

Unexplored

Materials

56

new and unexplored materials1
New and Unexplored Materials

Observing which materials children do not use is another source of ideas for SGT.

Reintroducing these materials at SGT may reawaken their interest in them.

You could also consider combining familiar materials in new ways (i.e., adding teddy bear counters to blocks).

HINT

If you find you aren’t seeing

any children doing something in a

particular content area (KDI or COR Item),

you may find that your classroom

lacks the materials that lend themselves

to children’s learning in that area.

Think about the content focus as you

plan SGTs around new and

unexplored materials.

New and

Unexplored

Materials

57

slide58

Shannon’s SGT Idea: Tell children a short story about a forest of tall trees and short trees (by putting sticks in the playdough). She told them that some dinosaurs were looking for places to live; some liked to live by the short trees, some by the tall trees. She gave each child a tray with their own materials and said she was interested to see where their dinosaurs wanted to live.

Content Areas

New and

Unexplored

Materials

Children’s

Interests

Layering on New and Unexplored Materials

+

+

In team planning, the teachers discussed that children seemed to have lost interest in the playdough.

They also discussed that they weren’t seeing a lot of sorting from any of the children.

Shannon suggested reintroducing the playdough by combining it with other materials in new ways.

Knowing that they also wanted to encourage sorting, she thought of adding sticks of different lengths. Her co-teacher Sue, suggested also using the small dinosaurs, which were a favorite of the children (and would capture their attention).

local traditions
Local Traditions

Occasionally, SGTs can stem from local traditions and community events.

These could include local festivals, holidays, or seasonal activities that are a part of children’s lives, such as:

Collecting fall leaves

Decorating pumpkins

Sprucing up the playground

Local

Traditions

59

slide60
This does not give teachers permission to do craft projects where all children make the same thing!

You have to have all 5 ingredients of active learning to be an appropriate SGT!

SGTs are not about making products, they are about supporting individual children’s learning!

Local

Traditions

Local Traditions

60

slide61

Local

Traditions

Content Areas

Layering on Local Traditions

+

This community hosts an art fair. The teachers and the children went on a walking field trip to visit the art fair. They got to meet several artists, who shared a bit about how their art was made.

Charonda wanted to follow-up on the field trip by providing her small group the opportunity to work with clay, and support children’s development in the content area of creative representation.

Charonda’s SGT idea: Start the SGT by showing children some photos taken from yesterday’s field trip. Tell them that for SGT, they can be artists and use clay. Give each child a tray with a clay board, a hunk of clay and a small bowl of water. Have rolling pins and clay hammers as back-up materials.

slide62

Content Areas

As you can see from the examples, no matter which source you plan your SGT from, you should also, always, think about the content area you are likely to see.

This helps you think about the scaffolding strategies you could use for each child in your group.

One caution – alwaysexpect the unexpected when working with preschool children!!!

Content Areas

Children’s

Interests

+

Content Areas

New and

Unexplored

Materials

+

Content Areas

Local

Traditions

+

make an origami fish
Make an Origami Fish
  • Cut out or fold back paper along outer solid lines.
  • With printed side facing up, fold in half along center line.
  • Unfold and turn over, so that the printed side is facing down.
  • Fold along the diagonal line. Unfold.
  • Repeat diagonal fold on the other side. Unfold.
make an origami fish1
Make an Origami Fish
  • Turn your paper over. With printed side down, fold along the creases, forming a “tent” with the two big triangles on the outside.
  • Fold the dorsal (top) fin back, then up along the solid line. Repeat with the ventral (bottom) fin.
  • Turn your fish over. Fold top tail fin down, then up along solid lines. Repeat with bottom tail fin.
make an origami fish2
Make an Origami Fish
  • Turn your fish over and you’re done!
scaffolding
Scaffolding

Scaffolding means to both:

support children’s individual levels of development (or where they currently are)

And

provide extensions as they move to the next developmental stage.

scaffolding steps
Scaffolding Steps
  • Step 1 – Identify content area
  • Step 2 – Consider children’s developmental range
  • Step 3 – Provide support at current level
  • Step 4 – Offer gentle extensions
step 1 decide on content and materials
Step 1: Decide on Content and Materials
  • What is your content focus?
  • What materials are children interested in using?
  • These can come in any order:
  • Content then materials.
  • Materials (interests) then content.
step 2 consider children s developmental levels
Step 2: Consider Children’s Developmental Levels
  • Think about the developmental range of your children.
    • How will they likely respond to the content and the materials?
  • Think in three broad categories of development:
    • Earlier
    • Middle
    • Later

We expect children to use materials in their own unique ways. We anticipate how they might respond, but need to support what they actuallydo!

step 3 provide support at child s current developmental level
Step 3:Provide Support at Child’s Current Developmental Level
  • Imitate the child’s actions.
  • Label the child’s actions.
  • Intentionally layer on other vocabulary to describe what the child is doing.
  • Ask the child to describe what he or she is doing.

Step 3 Hint

Remember to always pause to see how the child responds to what you are saying. This will give you clues about whether to continue with Step 3 or to try Step 4.

step 4 offer gentle extensions
Step 4: Offer Gentle Extensions
  • Draw attention to another child’s actions.
  • Ask the child to explain his or her thinking.
  • Gently introduce a new concept, idea or material.
  • Pose a new challenge.

Step 4 Hint

Carefully observe how children respond to your extension. Pushing them to advance when they are not ready can make them lose interest, discourage their initiative, and weaken their trust in your dependability to support their efforts.

slide76

SGT: Working with Cars and Boards

Scaffolding Example: Earlier Development

Things children might say or do at this stage: Drive the car around the floor. Yell, “Rrrr, zoooom,” while making a car go back and forth on the floor. Line the cars up on a board.

To support children’s current level, you might:

Use your own materials like the child; explore how the vehicles move on the floor. Line up your cars on a board.

Imitate the sounds that the child makes.

Label the child’s actions; “You are rolling the car on the floor. You made it go really fast.”

To offer extensions, you might:

Pose a challenge; “I see your race car is going fast. I wonder what you could do to make it go faster.”

Draw attention to other children’s actions; “Yemmy is using his boards like a road. He has made a path with them.”

slide77

SGT: Working with Cars and Boards

Scaffolding Example: Middle Development

Things children might say or do at this stage: Say, “The cars work best on the boards, they don’t like the carpet.” Place their board on a block to make a ramp and send their car rolling down it. Say to another child, “Let’s have a race.”

To support children’s current level, you might:

Imitate the child’s actions: Roll your car on the carpet and then on the board. Try racing your car.

Talk about how fast the cars are going by using words like fast, rapidly, speedy, quick, slower, sluggish, etc.

Layer on language to describe the child’s actions: “You’re right Carlee, the carpet is rougher and it’s difficult to roll the car on it.”

To offer extensions, you might:

Use ordinal number words to describe the race; The red car came in first and the yellow car was second.

Ask the child to explain their thinking; Why do you think the cars work better on the board? Why do you think your car goes further on the ramp?

slide78

SGT: Working with Cars and Boards

Scaffolding Example: Later Development

Things children might say or do at this stage: Experiment with making bridges by adding blocks to both sides and put a long plank across. Make a ramp several blocks tall and say, “When it’s high like this, the cars goes far – almost to Joey’s foot!”

To support children’s current level, you might:

Imitate the child’s actions; Make a ramp like the child did, or roll your car down the high ramp.

Ask the child to describe what they did; “Ella, I would like to make a bridge like yours. Can you tell me how you made it?”

To offer extensions, you might:

Pose a new challenge: Say, “I wonder how high the ramp would have to get before the cars stopped racing and just fell off?”

Gently introduce a new idea; Ask the child if they want to measure how far their car went or how high their ramp is.

highscope s new sgt plans
HighScope’s New SGT Plans
  • Please turn to pages 30-31.
slide81

What children might do at each developmental level.

How adults might scaffold the learning.

tokens
Tokens

= Earlier Development

= Middle Development

= Later Development

discussion1
Discussion
  • How do you think scaffolding will work for children in your program?
  • How will scaffolding help you or your teachers meet the needs of all the children in the group?