1970 Tanner Lewis, Dan Finkel, Jenny Mazzei, Erica Weis, Sammi Witsberger
Equal Rights Amendment • Equal rights for women has been sought after for many years • In the 1920’s Alice Paul made the fight stronger. • In the 1960’s the equal rights movement was revived • The basic goal for the fight in the 1970’s was to end job discrimination.
Equal Rights in the 1970’s • Women wanted to put an end to the unwritten rule that gave women the primary responsibilities for house work and child care. • Most female jobs in the 70’s involved clerical, domestic or other low paying jobs. • In 1974/ a comparison of median incomes for men and women showed that men made 75% more money than women. • Even women who had completed 4 years of higher education earned less than men who had not even completed high school.
Reasons for the Equal Rights Amendment • Women made up 40% of the work force • Women were paid less than men. • Classified ads of most newspapers were still divided into sections in the early 70’s. • Help wanted male • Help wanted female
Opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment • Opposition to the ERA mainly came from conservative religious and political groups. • Such groups included: John Birch Society, The Mormons, the George Wallace’s American Party, and many more. • The most effective enemy of the ERA was Stop ERA organized by Phyllis Schlafly, a conservative political activist.
Opposition continued • Oppositionist believed that by accepting the amendment they would be accepting radical views as well. • The ERA would • Deny existing legal rights for a woman to be supported by her husband • Challenge maternal preference in child custody cases. • Abortion rights and homosexual rights; gay marriage would be upheld • Women could be drafted into the military and sent into combat with men. • Privacy rights would be overturned • Unisex public restrooms • Single sex schools and colleges would be outlawed
Affirmative Action • Programs to over come the effects of past social discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women. • The Equal Employment Opportunities Act (1972) set up a commission to enforce such plans. • Some women feared that affirmative action would change traditional family life.
Controversy to Affirmative Action • The establishment of racial quotas in the name of affirmative action brought charges of so called reverse discrimination in the late 1970’s.
American opinion about the war • The Vietnam War was dragging on and by 1973 Americans were tired of the war. • Some of the major reasons Americans opposed the war are opposition to the draft, arguments against U.S. intervention, reaction to the media portrayal of the devastation in Southeast Asia. • Draft-There were many ways out of the draft for some, one could get a student deferment if one was in college, there were deferments based upon occupation, etc. like being a cop.
American Opinion • Other issues that influenced the American opinion opposition to chemical warfare, high death tolls, no country has the right to interfere in the government of another, the enemy continuing to fight, a large number of South Vietnamese that had joined the Vietcong, and the invasion of Cambodia. • United States began secretly bombing these bases along the Vietnam/Cambodia border and in Cambodian territory. They wanted to capture the North Vietnamese headquarters, but the US did not capture it or their estimated 40,000 troops. • The invasion of Cambodia was very unpopular and caused a wave of protests. One of the most influential protests occurred at Kent State University in Ohio. When United States National Guardsmen shot at student protesters, killing four of them.
American Opinion • People stated protesting the Vietnam War during the 1970s. • One major group that was protesting the Vietnam War was an anti-war group called the Doves. • Doves were made up of college students and faculty, liberal Democrats, and many other people in various walks of life. • They felt war was immoral, dragging on to no benefit to the US, and was causing increased casualties.
The Peace Agreement • August 1969, Henry Kissinger and North Vietnam’s Le Duc Tho met secretly in Paris to negotiate a peace, it took three years to negotiate. • October 1972 Nixon and Kissinger rejected theNorthVietnams offer for peace. • Paris Peace Accords on January 1973 declared a cease fire. • The cease fire was risky because neither country knew if the other country would keep the promise.
Protecting South Vietnam • US didn’t want to leave the war because they didn’t want North Vietnam to take over the South Vietnam • North Vietnam was communist and we were trying to stop the spread of communism • “Vietnamization” was the idea that US would leave the war gradually so that the South Vietnam can start to fight without US troops.
Short term Significance • South Vietnam unconditionally surrendered • 58,000 Americans deaths • 1 million North Vietnamese deaths • 500,000 South Vietnamese soldiers and civilian deaths • Vietnam environment was destroy from US bombing.
Long term effects • Post-traumatic stress disorder and drug abuse from veterans. • Veterans and citizens of Vietnam suffered from health issue from a chemical used in Agent Orange. • Vietnam reunited and formed a communist country. • Vietnams still suffers from land mines, unexploded bombs, and other unknown dangers lurking in the shadows.
Nixon Foreign Policy Achievements: • Nixon Doctrine (Guam Doctrine)- would support democratic third world nations by providing them with financial and military aid • Called for cease fire in Vietnam later that year • 1969 Nixon removed 25,000 American troops from Vietnam • Nixon was the first president to go and open trade with China • Made better relations between the U.S. and Soviet Union • Soviets and U.S. signed a mutual agreement in 1972 that Nuclear Missiles would not be used • Called the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT) http://youtu.be/jXTiz8F6S5E Mistakes: • Invasion and bombing of Cambodia • Series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia in mid 1970's • South Vietnam and U.S. carried these 13 major operations out • Objective of the campaign was to defeat 40,000 troops of Peoples Army of Vietnam • This pulled the neutral country of Cambodia into the Vietnam war • Destruction of the Cambodia countryside • Fall of Saigon and Vietnam uniting under Communist rule (April 30, 1975) • Saigon was the capital of South Vietnam • Captured by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front • This event caused the end of the Vietnam war • Started a transition period that lead to Vietnam's reunification into a communist state
Nixon and China • Relations with China were very important to Nixon administration--wanted rapprochement (strong relations) • July 15th, 1971 Nixon announced on National Television that he would be the first president to visit the People's Republic of China • China had been isolated from the West since the communist revolution of 1949 • "We simply cannot afford to leave China outside the family of nations" • Toned down the anti China rhetoric from White House • Loosened trade and visa restrictions • Envisioned good relations with major world powers (U.S., Soviet Union, China, Western Europe, Japan) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Zh-Mao_Zedong.ogg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sh163n1lJ4M
Nixon Liberal Reforms • Nixon was faced with inflation and rising unemployment • Nixon Shock- was to stabilize the economy and combat during 1970 inflation • Imposed temporary freezes on prices, rents and wages in 1971 • 90 day wage and price freeze, 10% import surcharge, and ending the convertibility between US dollars and gold • This was to halt the problems of the economy and gain support for the upcoming election • Worked but when he eased up on the actions, inflation rose again to 12% in 1974
Nixon’s Foreign Policy • Nixon signed the Paris Peace Accords, bringing to an end the involvement of U.S. ground troops in the Vietnam War. • Nixon provided aid to Israel during the 1973 October War, which helped prevent Israel’s defeat. While Nixon was dealing with the repercussions of the Watergate Scandal, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger continued shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East, helping to stabilize the situation.
Watergate Scandal • In June 1972, there was a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex. • After the arrest of five individuals, the FBI connected the burglars to the Committee for the Re-Election of the President (CREEP). • The U.S. Senate established a Watergate Committee to investigate the break-in. • Multiple members of the President’s staff testified before the Senate.
Watergate Scandal • Testimony before the Senate revealed that President Nixon had tape-recorded many conversations in the Oval Office. • The Special Prosecutor subpoenaed the tapes but President Nixon refused to turn them over, citing executive privilege. • When the Special Prosecutor refused to withdraw the subpoena, President Nixon ordered the Attorney General to fire him. Both the Attorney General and his assistant refused, and resigned. Subsequently, the Solicitor General fired the Special Prosecutor in what is known as the Saturday Night Massacre. • The dispute over the tapes went to the United States Supreme Court, which ruled that the tapes had to be disclosed in the landmark case, United States v. Nixon.
Watergate Scandal • On February 6, 1974, the U.S. House of Representatives voted 410-4 to investigate impeachment charges. • Several former aides of President Nixon were indicted for conspiring to hinder the investigation. • The tapes were turned over and revealed President Nixon’s knowledge of and participation in the cover-up. • In July 1974, the House recommended articles of impeachment. • On August 5, 1974, the White House released a previously unknown audio tape from shortly after the break-in that documented President Nixon’s involvement in the cover-up. • On August 8, 1974, President Nixon resigned in an address to the Nation.
Energy Crisis • Periods in which the United States faced substantial shortages, both real and perceived, of petroleum. • In 1973, the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries announced an oil embargo in response to the United States’ support of Israel during the October War. • As a result of the Embargo, oil prices rose substantially. In the U.S., gas prices were high, and the resultant shortages caused restrictions on gas consumption to be imposed.
Energy Crisis • In 1979, an Islamic Revolution in Iran resulted in elimination of oil exports from Iran and widespread panic.
Billie Jean King • Tennis player • Improved women’s tennis • Won her first tournament at 14 • Won singles and doubles at Wimbledon • Known for her unwillingness to loss • Leader in the movement for equal rights for women
PeteRose • Nickname “Charlie Hustle” • Major League baseball player and manager • 2 Golden Glove Awards, 3 World Series rings, 3 batting titles, Most Valuable Player Award, Rookie of the Year • Had a limited physical talent but unlimited heart to play • Played on the Cincinnati Reds, Philadelphia Phillies, Montreal Expos • Manager of the Cincinnati Reds
Secretariat • Secretariat was an American Thoroughbred racehorse. • It’s nickname was “Big Red” • Secretariat was 66 inches and 168 cm tall, and weighed 1,175 pounds. • 1973 became the first U.S. Triple Crown champion in 25 years • Set two records for racing Kentucky Derby (1:592/5) and Belmont Stakes (2:24). The records still stand today. • The story of the Secretariat was made into a movie in 2010
Munich Olympics • August 26- September 5, the 1972 summer Olympics were held in Munich Germany • They were the second Olympics to be held in Germany after the 1936 Berlin Games which were run by the Nazi Party • On September 5 what is now Known as the Munich Massacre occurred. • 11 Israeli athletes and coaches, one West German Police officer, and 5 Palestinian terrorists were killed. • The 8 Palestinian guerrillas were members of the group Black September • 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre of Israeli Atheletes - YouTube
Disco • The name Disco originated in Europe where it was used to describe any club that played exclusively recorded music, as opposed to live music. • Disco was a prevalent musical style of the 1970s, featured strong bass lines that carried the tune for other, (sometimes synthesized), instruments. • Disco had its roots in jazz music and took inspiration from other musical styles of the era. • Spread in popularity throughout the culture thanks to Saturday Night Fever
Elvis Presley • 1972- Elvis released his number one single of the seventies “Burning Love” • Jan 16,1971- Elvis was named one of the Ten Outstanding Young Men of the Nation by the United States Junior Chamber of Commerce. • Aug 16,1977- Elvis dies at his home in Graceland from a heart attack. • Elvis Presley - Burning Love (Viva Elvis) - YouTube
Famous Films in the 70s • The Godfather • 1972 film on powerful New York Crime family • Based in 1945-1955 mafia time period • Regarded as one of the greatest films in world cinema • Ranked second greatest film in American Cinema • Was the highest grossing film of all time at one point • Still leads in grosses for 1972 • Two sequels The Godfather Part II (1974) and The Godfather Part III (1990)
Grease • In theaters on June 16, 1978 • It made $394,589,888 worldwide • Grease had the 2nd biggest soundtrack of the 1970s just behind Saturday Night Fever • The main characters Danny and Sandy are played by John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John • Grease was one of the biggest pop-culture icons of the 1970s. • Grease is the story of Danny and Sandy two high school seniors who fall in love over the summer. The first day of school arrives and little does Danny know him and Sandy would soon be reunited. But Sandy is shocked to find the nice guy she meet at the beach is the leader of a greaser gang called 'The T'birds' Meanwhile Sandy is trying to fit in with her new "friends” The Pink Ladies. The song from this film will be stuck in your head for ever. Grease is a timeless classic that will have you singing and dancing by the end of the movie (IMDb). • You can still see this production today on TV and on stage.
Saturday Night Fever • Saturday Night Fever was one of the great movie of the 1970s. • In theater on Dec 19, 1977 • In made $282,400,000 at the box office • Soundtrack was on biggest selling soundtrack of the 1970s. • The main character was Tony Manero played by John Travolta. • Tony Manero, a Brooklyn paint-store clerk who'd give anything to break out of his dead-end existence. Tony’s true passion is disco. Tony’s aspirations are mirrored in his relationship with his dance partner, Stephanie (Karen Lynn Gorney), a secretary eager to move into the glamorous world of Manhattan. • Saturday Night Fever's huge success grew meteorically thanks to the towering popularity of its soundtrack. • This crossover between music and movies set the pace for many movies to come, as it also marked the rise and fall of 1970s disco culture.
TV Shows • Saturday Night Live (SNL) or NBC’s Saturday Night from 1975-1977 • Live American late-night television sketch comedy show • Since the start of the show it has been filmed in New York at the GE Building floors 8 and 9 • Sketches that make fun of American culture and politics • Created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol • Premiered on NBC October 11, 1975 • Still on today • Helped start the careers of many famous comedian’s today • Original cast of Laraine Newman, John Belushi, Jane Curtin, Gilda Radner, Dan Aykroyd, Garrett Morris, and Chevy Chase
The inventions of the 70s • In 1971, the Kenbak-1, the first personal computer, was released. • In 1972, Pong, the first ever home video game, was released.
Inventions of the 1970s • In 1976, Steve Wozniak designed the Apple I computer. • In 1977, a computer revolution occurred. The first commercially successful home computers appeared, including the Commodore and the Apple II, as well as the Atari game system
Rubik’s cube • Invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernó Rubik • Original name “Magic Cube” • Six faces is covered with nine stickers • Colors: white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow • Won the German Game of the Year • Rubik's cube world record: 5.66 seconds FeliksZemdegs - YouTube
MoodRings • Invented in 1975 by New York inventors Josh Reynolds and Maris Ambats. • Initial retail price $45 for silver setting and $250 for gold settings. • Contains thermochromic elements such as liquid crystal. • Very popular with young girls in the 70s. • Changes color with body temperature.
Lava Lamps • Lava Lamps • Invented by Briton Edward Craven-Walker in 1963 • Adolph Wertheimer William M. Rubinstein noticed it at a convention and bought rights to manufacture and sell as Lava Lite from the Lava Corporation • Wertheimer sold rights to HySpector who took product into production • Contains blobs of colored wax inside a glass container with clear liquid • Comes in many colors • Used in many “home” experiments • Caused death to one person who attempted to heat it up on the stove-- looking intently until it blew up
Pet Rocks • Pet Rocks • April 1975 Gary Dahl was in a bar listening to his friends complain about their pets • Came up with the idea of a perfect pet • Rock would not need to be fed or walked, and would not die • First ones were just gray stones sold at a builder’s supply store, but marketed as live pets with breathing holes in boxes etc. • Fad lasted about 6 months, but Dahl sold 1.5 million pet rocks becoming a millionaire