Chapter 7 : Mentos. Chapter 7 The Jovian Planets. Units of Chapter 7. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune Bulk Properties of the Jovian Planets Jupiter’s Atmosphere The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds Jovian Interiors Summary of Chapter 7.
Observations of Jupiter and Saturn
The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune
Bulk Properties of the Jovian Planets
The Atmospheres of the Outer Jovian Worlds
Summary of Chapter 7
Jupiter can be imaged well from Earth, even with a small telescope.
Here: Jupiter with its Galilean moons
Uranus, in natural color. Note the absence of features.
The Jovian planets are large and much less dense than the terrestrial planets; Saturn is less dense than water!
Peculiarity of Uranus: Axis of rotation lies almost in the plane of its orbit. Seasonal variations are extreme.
Atmosphere has bright zones and dark belts.
Zones are cooler, and are higher than belts.
Stable flow underlies zones and bands, called zonal flow.
Lowest cloud layer cannot be seen by optical telescopes.
Measurements by Galileo probe show high wind speeds even at great depth – probably due to heating from planet, not from Sun.
The Galileo probe descended into Jupiter’s atmosphere and returned valuable data. The arrow indicates its entry point.
Bands of clouds; Great Red Spot
Two examples of smaller storms merging, first into a smaller red spot, second into existing Great Red Spot
The atmosphere of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, except that Saturn is somewhat colder and its atmosphere is thicker.
Saturn’s atmosphere is similar to Jupiter’s, except pressure is lower.
It has three cloud layers.
Cloud layers are thicker than Jupiter’s; see only top layer.
Neptune has storm systems similar to those on Jupiter, but fewer. The large storm system at top has disappeared in recent years.
No direct information is available about Jupiter’s interior, but its main components, hydrogen and helium, are quite well understood. The central portion is thought to be a rocky core.
Magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune must not be produced by dynamos, as the other planets’ fields are.
Interior structure of Uranus and Neptune, compared to that of Jupiter and Saturn:
Intrinsic field strength is 20,000 times that of Earth.
Magnetosphere can extend beyond the orbit of Saturn.
Aurorae are seen on Jupiter, and have the same cause as those on Earth – the interaction of solar wind particles with the magnetosphere.
Uranus and Neptune both have substantial magnetic fields, but at a large angle to their rotation axes.
The rectangle within each planet shows a bar magnet that would produce a similar field. Note that both Uranus’s and Neptune’s are significantly off center.
How do we know what the internal structures of the Jovian planets are like?
Interior heating in the Jovian planets contribute to convection in the atmospheres.
Slow rotation rates lead to very strong coriolisforces.
The circulation patterns tend to be in very elongated bands that encircle the planets.
The circulation speeds increase towards the equator.
caused by an enormous volcano.
a region of hotter gases.
a long-lasting cyclonic storm.
an opening through the high level clouds revealing a portion of the atmosphere nearer the surface.
Which of the following are true about Jupiter's belts (dark) and zones(light)
belts are rising while zones are sinking.
belts are sinking while zones are rising.
both belts and zones are rising.
both belts and zones are sinking.
in the liquid metallic hydrogen region.
from the solar wind.
in the vicinity of Io.
from the motion of the Galilean satellites.
Compared to Earth, the expected seasonal changes on Uranus because of its orbital and spin-axis alignments will be
very much exaggerated.
absent, because of the alignment of the spin axis.
planet has fewer rings than expected.
magnetic field has a large tilt to the spin axis.
larger moons have smooth surfaces and little evolution.
rings are made of objects hundreds of meters in radius.
it must rotate faster.
it must have much more rocky material.
it must have a stronger magnetic field.
it must have a higher concentration of icy materials.