Roman Army By George Rootham
The Roman army was made up of groups of soldiers called legions. There were over 5,000 soldiers in a legion.
Roman soldiers were very strong and tough, they had to march over 20 miles a day with heavy things to carry. They had to carry tents, food, cooking pots and weapons as well as wearing all their armour. • The Roman army was divided into two groups - legionaries and auxiliaries.
Roman Legionnaire • You had to be under the age of 45 and a roman citizen to be a Roman Legionnaire. • Legionnaires served in the army for 20 years. They were well trained fighting men They were also engineers and craftsmen because they had to build roads, bridges and forts.
Roman Auxiliary • The Auxiliaries were non-Roman citizens. They were recruited from places that had been conquered by Rome. • Auxiliaries were paid less than the legionaires and had to serve for 25 years, after which they became Roman citizens.
The Roman CavalryA troop of 120 horsemen, who served as scouts and messengers were part of each Roman legion.
Weapons • The legionary's weapons were two javelins, a sword and a dagger. • The sword was very important. It was light and short (no more than 50 cm) so soldiers can use it for stabbing quickly.
Pilum- throwing spear • A soldier carried two spears to throw at the enemy. The spears were just over two metres long and they were designed to bend and stick in the enemy's shield. • They were difficult to pull out so they couldn't be thrown back at the attacking Roman soldiers.
Pugio - dagger The pugio was a small dagger used by Roman soldiers. It was worn on left side.
Scutum- shield • A soldier always carried a shield (scutum) which he used for protection.
Roman Armour • All Roman soldiers wore a uniform and armour to protect them against being wounded in battle.
Cassis- helmet • A helmet was worn to protect a soldiers forehead. • There was a guard at the back of the helmet to protect from sword attacks.