Chapter Seven

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Chapter Seven - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Variable Costing: A Tool for Management. Chapter Seven. Learning Objective 1. Explain how variable costing differs from absorption costing and compute unit product costs under each method. Product Costs. Direct Materials. Product Costs. Direct Labor. Variable Manufacturing Overhead.

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Chapter Seven

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1. Variable Costing:A Tool for Management Chapter Seven

2. Learning Objective 1 Explain how variable costing differs from absorption costing and compute unit product costs under each method.

3. ProductCosts Direct Materials ProductCosts Direct Labor Variable Manufacturing Overhead Fixed Manufacturing Overhead PeriodCosts PeriodCosts Variable Selling and Administrative Expenses Fixed Selling and Administrative Expenses Overview of Absorptionand Variable Costing AbsorptionCosting VariableCosting

4. Quick Check  Which method will produce the highest values for work in process and finished goods inventories? a. Absorption costing. b. Variable costing. c. They produce the same values for these inventories. d. It depends. . .

5. Quick Check  Which method will produce the highest values for work in process and finished goods inventories? a. Absorption costing. b. Variable costing. c. They produce the same values for these inventories. d. It depends. . .

6. Unit Cost Computations Harvey Company produces a single productwith the following information available:

7. Unit Cost Computations Unit product cost is determined as follows: Under absorption costing, selling and administrative expenses arealways treated asperiod expensesand deducted from revenue as incurred.

8. Learning Objective 2 Prepare income statements using both variable and absorption costing.

9. Income Comparison ofAbsorption and Variable Costing Let’s assume the following additional information for Harvey Company. • 20,000 units were sold during the year at a price of \$30 each. • There were no units in beginning inventory. Now, let’s compute net operatingincome using both absorptionand variable costing.

10. Absorption Costing

11. Variablemanufacturing costs only. All fixedmanufacturingoverhead isexpensed. Variable Costing

12. Learning Objective 3 Reconcile variable costing and absorption costing net operating incomes and explain why the two amounts differ.

13. Comparing the Two Methods

14. Fixed mfg. Overhead \$150,000 Units produced 25,000 units = = \$6.00 per unit Comparing the Two Methods We can reconcile the difference betweenabsorption and variable income as follows:

15. Extended Comparisons of Income Data Harvey Company Year Two

16. Unit Cost Computations Since there was no change in the variable costsper unit, total fixed costs, or the number ofunits produced, the unit costs remain unchanged.

17. These are the 25,000 units produced in the current period. Absorption Costing

18. Variablemanufacturing costs only. All fixedmanufacturingoverhead isexpensed. Variable Costing

19. Fixed mfg. Overhead \$150,000 Units produced 25,000 units = = \$6.00 per unit Comparing the Two Methods We can reconcile the difference betweenabsorption and variable income as follows:

20. Comparing the Two Methods

21. Summary of Key Insights

22. Effect of Changes in Productionon Net Operating Income Let’s revise the Harvey Company example. In the previous example,25,000 units were produced each year,but sales increased from 20,000 units in yearone to 30,000 units in year two. In this revised example,production will differ each year whilesales will remain constant.

23. Effect of Changes in ProductionHarvey Company Year One

24. Since the number of units produced increasedin this example, while the fixed manufacturing overheadremained the same, the absorption unit cost is less. Unit Cost Computations for Year One Unit product cost is determined as follows:

25. Absorption Costing: Year One

26. Variablemanufacturing costs only. All fixedmanufacturingoverhead isexpensed. Variable Costing: Year One

27. Effect of Changes in ProductionHarvey Company Year Two

28. Since the number of units produced decreased in thesecond year, while the fixed manufacturing overheadremained the same, the absorption unit cost is now higher. Unit Cost Computations for Year Two Unit product cost is determined as follows:

29. These are the 20,000 units produced in the currentperiod at the higher unit cost of \$17.50 each. Absorption Costing: Year Two

30. Variablemanufacturing costs only. All fixedmanufacturingoverhead isexpensed. Variable Costing: Year Two

31. Conclusions  Net operating income is not affected by changes in production using variable costing.  Net operating income is affected by changes in production using absorption costing even though the number of units sold is the same each year. Comparing the Two Methods

32. Learning Objective 4 Understand the advantages and disadvantages of both variable and absorption costing.

33. Impact on the Manager Opponents of absorption costing argue thatshifting fixed manufacturing overhead costsbetween periods can lead to faulty decisions. These opponents argue that variable costing incomestatements are easier to understand because net operatingincome is only affected by changes in unit sales. Thisproduces net operating income figures that aremore consistent with managers’ expectations.

34. CVP Analysis, Decision Makingand Absorption costing Absorption costing does not support CVP analysis because it essentially treats fixed manufacturing overhead as a variable cost by assigning a per unit amount of the fixed overhead to each unit of production. • Treating fixed manufacturing overhead as a variable cost can: • Lead to faulty pricing decisions and keep-or-drop decisions. • Produce positive net operating income even when the number of units sold is less than the breakeven point.

35. Since top executivesare usually evaluated based on external reports to shareholders,they may feel that decisionsshould be based on absorption cost income. External Reporting and Income Taxes To conform toGAAP requirements,absorption costing must be used forexternal financial reports in the United States. Under the TaxReform Act of 1986,absorption costing must beused when filing income tax returns.

36. Consistent with CVP analysis. Management findsit more useful. Net operating income is closer tonet cash flow. Consistent with standardcosts and flexible budgeting. Easier to estimate profitabilityof products and segments. Impact of fixed costs on profits emphasized. Profit is not affected bychanges in inventories. Advantages of Variable Costingand the Contribution Approach Advantages

37. Fixed manufacturingcosts must be assignedto products to properlymatch revenues andcosts. Fixed manufacturing costs are capacity costsand will be incurredeven if nothing isproduced. VariableCosting AbsorptionCosting Variable versus Absorption Costing

38. Variable Costing and theTheory of Constraints (TOC) Companies involved in TOC use a form of variable costing. However, one difference of the TOC approach is that it treats direct labor as a fixed cost for three reasons: • Many companies have a commitment to guarantee workers a minimum number of paid hours. • Direct labor is usually not the constraint. • TOC emphasizes the role direct laborers play in driving continuous improvement. Since layoffs often devastate morale, managers involved in TOC are extremely reluctant to lay off employees.

39. Impact of JIT Inventory Methods In a JIT inventory system . . . Productiontends to equalsales . . . So, the difference between variable and absorption income tends to disappear.

40. End of Chapter 7