Falling in Love with Vocabulary Presented by Shannon Walker Kimberly Allen
Fun with Words - SnigletsMatch the word with the definition or picture • Dudnobs (dud’ nobz) • Adequate (a’ du kwit) • Emeneminize (em ‘n em’ en ize) • Dreamonium (dree mon’ ee um) • v. Consuming one’s M&M’s by color groups. • n. The metallic coating on a lottery ticket that separates you from a million bucks a year for life. • n. The fake drawers beneath the sink that everyone tries to pullopen. Taken From: Hall, Rich ( 1987). Angry Young Sniglets. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Fun with Words - SnigletsMatch the word with the definition or picture • Gloob (gloob) • Rort (rort) • Nasalstalgia (nay zul stahl’ juh) • Petroulette (peh’ tri dent) • n. Special smells that bring you back to another place and time. • n. Old sticks of gum at the bottom of a woman’s purse. • n. The item in the copier left behind by the previous user which you sometimes also copy (thinking sooner or later the information could come in handy).
Complete the Analogy Learning a new word is like… because…
Laura Robb • Learning a new word is like dating: • You are introduced • Take several months to get to know each other • Reach a point where you know each other
Objectives • State the importance of vocabulary instruction • Identify tiers of words to teach • Identify instructional practices that increase students’ vocabulary learning
Agree or Disagree • Most reading problems that we identify as comprehension problems usually relate to vocabulary deficiencies. • If the meanings of just a few key words in a passage are unknown, then there is little to no comprehension. • Words are the most useful learning tools we can offer students.
The important role of vocabulary in reading comprehension has long been recognized. One’s vocabulary level is highly predictive of one’s level of reading comprehension. Words are how we label our concepts and ideas. This prior knowledge is key to understanding what we read, so vocabulary is a good predictor of how well the reader will comprehend a text.(Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)
There is strong evidence that the earlier word meanings are learned, the more easily available they are to assist in comprehension and to use in speech and writing. It is sensible to provide children with opportunities to gain facility with some difficult words at a young age. Giving children experience with such words in oral activities allows them a head start when they meet the words later reading on their own. Moreover, knowing some of the difficult words in a text may allow them to learn more of the unfamiliar words in that text. (Beck & McKeown, 2005)
The Importance of Teaching Vocabulary • Strong correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. • Becker (1977) linked the vocabulary size to the academic achievement of disadvantaged students. • Definite gap between students with poor vocabularies and students with rich vocabularies.
Choosing Words to Love • Review the text to identify the story line(s) or main ideas. • Compile a list of words related to the story line(s) or main ideas. These are key-concept words. • Determine which key concept words are adequately defined in the text. These words need no direct teaching. Cooper, David J. (1997). Literacy: Helping children construct meaning. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Choosing Words to Love • Identify the words students can determine through the use of prefixes, suffixes, or base words. These words need no direct teaching. • Think about the words in relation to students’ needs. Words likely to cause difficulty may require direct teaching. Cooper, David J. (1997). Literacy: Helping children construct meaning. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Tiers of Words • Tier One • The most basic words • Example: clock, baby, walk • These words rarely need to be taught in a school setting. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.
Tiers of Words • Tier Three • Content specific words • An in-depth understanding of these words would not be useful • Best learned for specific purposes • Example: Discussing spelunking during a story on caves. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.
Tiers of Words • Tier Two • Words of high frequency in a variety of contexts • They comprise a large part of a student’s vocabulary • Examples: fragile, bitter, looming, disastrous Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.
How to avoid a “bad choice” • Make sure you are able to explain the term in your own words (student friendly definition). • Always remember that words are useful and interesting. Students must find use for a word in everyday situations.
Picking Tier 2 Words • Read the following passage. Which word(s) would you choose to teach? Why? • Turn and Talk
Running down the path, he found a panda whose leg had been injured by a fallen tree. Carefully, Nikolai carried her into Leo’s house and made a splint for her leg with a stick of bamboo. The storm raged on, banging at the doors and windows. The panda woke up. “Where am I?” she said. “And where is my child?” The boy ran out of the cottage and down the path. The roar of the storm was deafening. Pushing against the howling wind and drenching rain, he ran farther into the forest. excerpt from: Muth, Jon J. (2002). The Three Questions. New York, NY: Scholastic
Things to keep in mind, when searching for the “Words of your Dreams” • How useful is the word in general? • Does the word relate to other words and ideas students have been learning? • Does the word make the text become more meaningful? Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.
Indirect vs. Direct Vocabulary Instruction • Indirect Instruction • Participating in daily oral language activities • Listening to adults read to them • Reading independently
Direct Instruction:Introducing New Words • What’s the problem? • Students lack knowledge of key words they will encounter in a story. • Teachers introduce words, one by one, but the students do not retain the information. • Students do not grasp the meanings of the words and can not completely comprehend the story despite the teachers’ attempts.
Introducing New Vocabulary • Introducing a word is the first step, not the only step. • Only offering information will not lead to a deep understanding of a word. • Students need many experiences over time in order to learn a word and use it across different contexts.
Introducing New Words • Word Up • Semantic Impression • Expert Word Cards • Word Associations • Have You Ever…? • Applause, Applause! • Idea Completions
Word Up • Use with the youngest and most at-risk readers. • Select important story words, write each word on an index card, pronounce and quickly define the words for the students. • Hand out a story word to each student. • As the story is read aloud, students hold up the story word as they hear it.
Semantic Impression • Select important story words and compile them into a chronological ordered list and briefly introduce them to the students. • Students use the words (other forms of the word are acceptable) in order to write their own narrative story that makes sense. • The teacher reads aloud the story.
Expert Word Cards • When using longer text or content reading with intermediate grades, each student is assigned a word. • Each student must find the word in context and copy the sentence onto the front of a card. • Then he must look up the word in a dictionary and decide which definition fits the context of the sentence. • He will write the definition in his own words on the back of the card.
Expert Word Cards • Student composes an original sentence using the word in a meaningful way. • Student illustrates the front of the card to represent the definition. • Students share the words with each other.
Word Associations • After introducing new words and definitions, students are asked to associate the new words with other words or phrases. • For example - After introducing accomplice and novice, ask: • Which word goes with crook? • Which word goes with kindergartner? • Students must defend their answers.
Have You Ever…? • Helps students make associations from own experiences to new words. • “Describe a time when you might urge someone.” • “For what reasons would you commend someone?”
Applause, Applause • Students are asked to clap to show how much they would like to be described by the new words (not at all, a little bit, a lot). • Example words - frank, honest, vain, stern, loyal • Students need to defend their applause.
“Teachers can make vocabulary meaningful and memorable for students by anchoring new words in multiple contexts.” Juel & Deffes, 2004
Framework for Vocabulary Instruction • Step 1 - Provide student-friendly definition • Step 2 - Provide picture or nonlinguistic representation of the word • Step 3 - Allow students to make their own explanation or description of word. • Step 4 - Allow students to make their own illustration • Step 5 - Provide rich, frequent & extended instruction • Step 6 - Assess students’ word knowledge
Getting to Know Each Other • What does it mean to “know” a word? • “Knowing” a word is a matter of varying degrees. It is not “all or nothing.” • Need multiple exposures to words in a variety of contexts - oral and written.
Getting to Know Each Other • Graphic Organizers to use in the classroom: • Frayer Model • Semantic Maps • Semantic Feature Analysis • Linear Relationships • Illustrating Words
Semantic Maps Topic
Linear Relationships Devastated sorrowful sad melancholy pensive okay cheerful happy delighted ecstatic rapturous “on cloud nine”
Nonlinguistic Representations adorned Santa Bonita Maria School District: http://www.smbsd.org/page.cfm?p=35
Jan Richardson’s Vocabulary Strategies • 1. Reread or read on and look for clues. • 2. Check the picture or visualize. • 3. Use a known part. • 4. Make a connection to a known word. • 5. Use the glossary.
Knowing a Word • Rich vocabulary keeps getting richer. • “If I use the words a lot, I can remember them.” - Sixth Grade Student
Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition • Model word curiosity • Read Alouds – Word Collectors • Reading/Writing Conferences • Morning Messages • Model it, don’t force it • Conversations • Directions
Online Resources • http://insidestoryflashcards.com/printable_flashcards/index.php • http://www.visuwords.com • http://www.spellingcity.com/ • http://freerice.com/
3 - 2 - 1 Review • 3 reasons vocabulary instruction is critical to student success. • 2 things you will share with your faculty. • 1 strategy you will use in your classroom.