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PARTICLE PHYSICS. INTRODUCTION. The recorded tracks of sub atomic particles resulting from the collision of two protons in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Image courtesy of CERN. THE SMALLEST THINGS. Strange quark Charge -1/3. Up quark Charge +2/3.

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
INTRODUCTION

The recorded tracks of sub atomic particles resulting from the collision of two protons in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Image courtesy of CERN.

the smallest things
THE SMALLEST THINGS

Strange quarkCharge -1/3

Up quarkCharge +2/3

Down quarkCharge -1/3

Above: The Standard Model of particle physics showing all six quarks with leptons (electron-like particles) and bosons (force carriers). Image courtesy of CERN.

Left: Three of the six quarks with their antiparticles

Antiup quarkCharge -2/3

Antidown quarkCharge +1/3

Antistrange quark +1/3

slightly bigger things
SLIGHTLY BIGGER THINGS

Baryons

Mesons

Kaons

Neutron

Above: A bubble chamber image showing the decay of a moving K+ meson (image left) into other charged particles. The charged decay products are shown spiralling in the chamber’s applied magnetic field. Image courtesy of CERN.

Pions

Proton

rules for combination electric charge
RULES FOR COMBINATION: ELECTRIC CHARGE

The electrical charge of individual quarks has to add up to a whole number. Particles cannot have fractional charge.

Charge +1

Charge 0

Charge +2/3

Charge -2/3

Charge -1/3

Charge -1/3

X

Charge +1/3

Charge +1/3

Charge +1/3

slide6

RULES FOR COMBINATION: COLOUR CHARGE

The colour charge of individual quarks have to “cancel out”. All particles must be “colour neutral”

conservations
CONSERVATIONS

Particle interactions must obey certain rules, conserving certain numbers.

+

Electric charge

Baryon number

Lepton number

Strangeness

roundup
ROUNDUP

Quarks are amongst the smallest things in the universe

They combine to make baryons and mesons

Other particles called leptons aren’t made of quarks

Quarks combine according to certain rules (charge and colour)

Particle interactions conserve certain numbers and not others

Forces are carried through particles called bosons

Beta decay is governed by the weak force