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Introduction to Pathology
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  1. Introduction to Pathology Dr.H.Zahawi,FRC.Path

  2. Study of Medicine & Disease • Greek : Pathos Logus • Pathology is the study of suffering • Disease is Dis-ease • Egyptian,Arabs, Greece, Rome, middle ages • Scientific Revolution 16th.-17th.

  3. What is Pathology ? • Study of disease by scientific methods • Individual’s reaction to injury & its effect on body • Effect recognized by structural &functional changes  PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • Result is either compensated , decompensated or causes death . • Links basic science to clinical practice

  4. History of Pathology Anisim Influence of magic or supernatural Deficiency or excess body fluids Hippocrates ‘Father of Medicine’ Postmortems & gross pathology ( 300BC) Van Leeuwenhoek ‘microscope’ 17th.century Study of cells  Rudolf Virchow ‘Father of Pathology’ Humors Morbid anatomy Cellular path.

  5. Microscopes 17th.-19th.century

  6. Pathology in the 21st.century • Many new techniques Electron Microscopy Genetics • KNOW THE NORMAL BEFORE THE ABNORMAL Subcellular Molecular

  7. Branches of Pathology • Anatomic pathology : Study of tissues or cells - Postmortem Examination ( autopsy ) - Forensic Pathology - Surgically removed specimens - Cytology of smears, Fine Needle Aspiration • Clinical pathology : - Clinical chemistry - Hematology - Microbiology - Immunology - Genetics

  8. How Pathology is taught • General pathology : studies mechanism & the characteristics of principle types of disease processes e.g. - cell injury - inflammation - neoplasia • Systemic pathology : studies specific diseases in specific organ systems. e.g. - lung abscess - breast cancer

  9. Steps in study of diseases • Epidemiological aspects • Etiology: identifiable cause of disease - Intrinsic : genetic - Extrinsic : acquired - Idiopathic • Pathogenesis : Sequence of events in the response of cells& tissues to the etiological agent, from the initial stimulus to the final expression of disease. This response can be studied morphologically, biochemical, immunologically or at molecular level.

  10. Pathological & clinical features including biochemical tests, radiological findings INTEGRATE ALL INFORMATION !!!!! • Complications & sequelae : Events taken during the disease process that may impair full recovery • Treatment • Prognosis : A forecast as to the probable result of an attack of disease and the prospect of recovery.

  11. To aid diagnosis , study morphology : • Samples for study include cells, biopsy or whole organ : - Gross or macroscopic appearance - Histological or microscopic appearance - Electron microscopy or ultrastructure • Genetic & molecular methods may aid diagnosis

  12. Sample case A 60 year old woman with a lump in the neck of 6 months duration. Patient has fever & raised BMR ( ESR) On examination she also had enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Further investigations were within normal

  13. Biopsy was taken i.e. tissue removed for microscopical exam

  14. Follicular Lymphoma

  15. Genetic Studies : Translocation t18: 14 • Treatment : Chemotherapy • Prognosis : Good

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma

  17. Opened uterus with leiomyomas Gross Microscopy

  18. Gross ????

  19. Electron microscopy useful in some cases

  20. CONCLUSION : • PATHOLOGY AIDS IN DIAGNOSIS& MANAGEMENT OF DISEASE PROCESSES • PATHOLOGY IS THE BASES OF MEDICINE