Introduction to Pathology Dr.H.Zahawi,FRC.Path
Study of Medicine & Disease • Greek : Pathos Logus • Pathology is the study of suffering • Disease is Dis-ease • Egyptian,Arabs, Greece, Rome, middle ages • Scientific Revolution 16th.-17th.
What is Pathology ? • Study of disease by scientific methods • Individual’s reaction to injury & its effect on body • Effect recognized by structural &functional changes PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • Result is either compensated , decompensated or causes death . • Links basic science to clinical practice
History of Pathology Anisim Influence of magic or supernatural Deficiency or excess body fluids Hippocrates ‘Father of Medicine’ Postmortems & gross pathology ( 300BC) Van Leeuwenhoek ‘microscope’ 17th.century Study of cells Rudolf Virchow ‘Father of Pathology’ Humors Morbid anatomy Cellular path.
Pathology in the 21st.century • Many new techniques Electron Microscopy Genetics • KNOW THE NORMAL BEFORE THE ABNORMAL Subcellular Molecular
Branches of Pathology • Anatomic pathology : Study of tissues or cells - Postmortem Examination ( autopsy ) - Forensic Pathology - Surgically removed specimens - Cytology of smears, Fine Needle Aspiration • Clinical pathology : - Clinical chemistry - Hematology - Microbiology - Immunology - Genetics
How Pathology is taught • General pathology : studies mechanism & the characteristics of principle types of disease processes e.g. - cell injury - inflammation - neoplasia • Systemic pathology : studies specific diseases in specific organ systems. e.g. - lung abscess - breast cancer
Steps in study of diseases • Epidemiological aspects • Etiology: identifiable cause of disease - Intrinsic : genetic - Extrinsic : acquired - Idiopathic • Pathogenesis : Sequence of events in the response of cells& tissues to the etiological agent, from the initial stimulus to the final expression of disease. This response can be studied morphologically, biochemical, immunologically or at molecular level.
Pathological & clinical features including biochemical tests, radiological findings INTEGRATE ALL INFORMATION !!!!! • Complications & sequelae : Events taken during the disease process that may impair full recovery • Treatment • Prognosis : A forecast as to the probable result of an attack of disease and the prospect of recovery.
To aid diagnosis , study morphology : • Samples for study include cells, biopsy or whole organ : - Gross or macroscopic appearance - Histological or microscopic appearance - Electron microscopy or ultrastructure • Genetic & molecular methods may aid diagnosis
Sample case A 60 year old woman with a lump in the neck of 6 months duration. Patient has fever & raised BMR ( ESR) On examination she also had enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Further investigations were within normal
Biopsy was taken i.e. tissue removed for microscopical exam
Genetic Studies : Translocation t18: 14 • Treatment : Chemotherapy • Prognosis : Good
Opened uterus with leiomyomas Gross Microscopy
CONCLUSION : • PATHOLOGY AIDS IN DIAGNOSIS& MANAGEMENT OF DISEASE PROCESSES • PATHOLOGY IS THE BASES OF MEDICINE