Introduction to Pathology. By Gandi Li Department of Pathology West China Medical School Feb,2003. Where there is love of medicine, there is love of humankind. -- Hippocrates (460-377 BC). The most common diseases in developing countries.
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By Gandi Li
Department of Pathology
West China Medical School
morphologic lesions (lesions)
Approach to good result:
a hypertrophic heart (left) and a normal heart (right)
Sir William Osler (Canadian Physician)
intracellular accumulations, degeneration
A summary of the relationship between normal cells,
adaptative cells, reversible injured cells and cell death
the morphologic changes of cell injury.
Free radicals/ reactive chemicals
Vitamin E, C
When cells encounter physiologic stresses or pathologic stimuli from outside and inside of body, they can alter themselves to achieve a new steady state and preserve viability.
Shrinkage in the size of the parenchymal cells by loss of cell substances in a well developed organ or tissue is known as atrophy. Or:
acquired shrinkage of cells, tissues or organs.
Right: Atrophied Left: Normal
Kidney is hypoplastic and the left one with a three-ureters
widened sulci and narrow convolutions.
Brain atrophy in a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. The gyri are narrowed and the sulci widened toward to frontal pole.
Note the dilated ventricles and thinner grey and
whine matter. The renal calyces and renal pelvis are dilated too.
There are some skeletal muscle fibers. The number of cells is the same as before the atrophy occurred, but the size of some fibers is reduced. In this case, innervation of the small fibers in the center was lost. This is a trichrome stain.
Lysosomes digest the senescent organelles (autolysis)
No increase of cell
number in a purified
a patient with essential hypertension.Note the marked
thickened wall of ventricle.
Left: gross appearance of a normal uterus and a gravid uterus.
Middle: small spindle-shaped uterine smooth muscle cells from
A normal uterus.
Right: large, plump hypertrophied smooth muscle cells from
a gravid uterus.
Red bone marrow of blood donor
Goiter (absence of iodine)
lower part of esophagus
in a patient with
Note the goblet
transforms to a disorderly growth pattern at the right. This is
farther down the road toward neoplasia.
Summary of abnormal growth