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Guy Fawkes. Who was he?. Who was Guy Fawkes?. Fawkes was born and educated in York. His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic.

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guy fawkes
Guy Fawkes

Who was he?

who was guy fawkes
Who was Guy Fawkes?
  • Fawkes was born and educated in York.
  • His father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic.
  • Fawkes later converted to Catholicism and left for the continent, where he fought in the Eighty Years‘ War on the side of Catholic Spain against Protestant Dutch reformers.
  • He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England but was unsuccessful.
  • He later met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England.

Wintour introduced Fawkes to Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne.

The plotters secured the lease to an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, and Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder they stockpiled there.


Prompted by the receipt of an anonymous letter, the authorities searched Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, and found Fawkes guarding the explosives.

  • Over the next few days, he was questioned and tortured, and eventually he broke.

When asked by one of the lords what he was doing in possession of so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered that his intention was "to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains."

  • Fawkes admitted his intention to blow up the House of Lords, and expressed regret at his failure to do so.

Immediately before his execution on 31 January, Fawkes jumped from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck, thus avoiding the agony of the drawing and quartering that followed.


Fawkes became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, which has been commemorated in England since 5 November 1605. His effigy is burned on a bonfire, often accompanied by a firework display.

november 5 th guy fawkes night
November 5th – Guy Fawkes Night
  • On 5 November 1605 Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King's escape from assassination by lighting bonfires, "always provided that 'this testimony of joy be careful done without any danger or disorder'".
  • An Act of Parliamentdesignated each 5 November as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance", and remained in force until 1859.
  • Although he was only one of 13 conspirators, Fawkes is today the individual most associated with the failed Plot.

In Britain, 5 November has variously been called Guy Fawkes Night, Guy Fawkes Day and Bonfire Night; the latter can be traced directly back to the original celebration of 5 November 1605.

  • Bonfires were accompanied by fireworks from the 1650s onwards.

It also became the custom to burn an effigy (usually the Pope) after 1673… Effigies of other notable figures who have become targets for the public's ire, such as Margaret Thatcher have also found their way onto the bonfires, although most modern effigies are of Fawkes.

  • The "guy" is normally created by children, from old clothes, newspapers, and a mask.
  • During the 19th century, "guy" came to mean an oddly dressed person, but in American English it lost any pejorative connotation, and was used to refer to any male person.
why do we celebrate guy fawkes night
Why do we celebrate Guy Fawkes Night?
  • Settlers exported Guy Fawkes Night to overseas colonies, including some in North America, where it was known as Pope Day. Those festivities died out with the onset of the American Revolution, although celebrations continue in some Commonwealth nations.

Several traditional rhymes have accompanied the Guy Fawkes Night festivities. "God Save the King" can be replaced by "God save the Queen" depending on who is on the throne.

  • Remember, remember the Fifth of November,The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,I know of no reasonWhy the Gunpowder TreasonShould ever be forgot.Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes, t'was his intentTo blow up the King and Parli'ment.Three-score barrels of powder belowTo prove old England's overthrow;By God's mercy he was catch'dWith a dark lantern and burning match.Hollaboys, Holla boys, let the bells ring.Holloaboys, holloa boys, God save the King!And what should we do with him? Burn him!