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RTI: Academics. A NEW APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING LEARNING DISABILITIES. Review of One SLD Diagnostic Model. Often referred to as: Discrepancy Model How it is done: Teacher referred child for assessment Psychologist performed assessment (IQ and Achievement test)

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rti academics

RTI: Academics


review of one sld diagnostic model
Review of One SLD Diagnostic Model
  • Often referred to as: Discrepancy Model
  • How it is done:
    • Teacher referred child for assessment
    • Psychologist performed assessment (IQ and Achievement test)
    • Psychologist subtracted the achievement score from the IQ score
    • Psychologist determined if any significant discrepancy b/w IQ and achievement
    • Eligibility team meets and decides if a disability exists.
    • Child is either placed or not placed in special education
report back to the law
Report back to the law.
  • When determining whether a pupil has a specific learning disability, the public agency may use a process that determines if the pupil responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures described in subsection 6.
  • Other assessments in subsection 6: IQ, ACH, Social/ Emotional, Ed. hx, Dev. hx, Med. hx, Observation, Current status
review of a newer sld diagnostic model
Review of a Newer SLD Diagnostic Model
  • Often referred to as: RtI (Response to Intervention)
  • How it is done:
    • School provides a common educational experience with common interventions for all children (Tier I).
    • Teacher referred child for additional intervention when Tier I is not enough (Tier II).
    • A team (often including a school psychologist, a school counselor, a lead teacher, and the referring teacher) confers to provide guidance.
    • Baseline data is collected on the child.
    • A “research based” intervention is administered with frequent data collection or “progress monitoring.”
    • The team reconvenes to determine if the child has responded to the Tier II intervention.
    • Either the child has improved, further services are provided at the general education level, or the child goes into special education.
why is someone referred
Why is someone referred?
  • Local norms (teacher compares child to others in class or in school)
  • Socio-cultural differences
  • Contextual factors (e.g., Teacher/Child fit, frequent absences, abuse, etc.)
problems with discrepancy
Problems with Discrepancy
  • No direct link b/w assessment and intervention
  • Not consistent from state to state
  • What is an “educationally significant discrepancy”?
  • How discrepancy is diagnosed (not standardized)
    • Deviation from grade
    • Expectancy formulas (deviation from grade taking into account IQ
    • Simple Standard-score differences
    • Standard regression analysis (account for measurement error)
what is rti
What is RTI?
  • Discrepancy is not between IQ and ACH
  • Discrepancy is between pre-intervetion scores and post-intervention scores.
rti considers
RTI Considers…
  • Did child have adequate opportunity to learn?
  • Is this child’s skills falling w/in what would would be expected in his/her classroom?
  • The difference b/w acquisition (can’t do it) vs. motivation (won’t do it).
    • Can do this by performing an assessment w/out reward and later providing it with reward and seeing if there is a significant difference.
  • Data supports interventions that use a combination of direct instruction and strategy.
  • Given the various effective interventions available, practitioners may have to decide what is best for this child, in this school, at this time.
  • Length will depend on student’s responsiveness to intervention (individual to each child.
change in treatment
Change in Treatment

Special Ed.: IEP Determination

Tertiary: Selected Intervention

Secondary: Consultation

Primary: Whole Class

rti assumptions
RTI: Assumptions
  • Intensity of intervention is matched to the degree of unresponsiveness.
  • Change in intensity is based on inadequate response to empirically supported interventions.
  • Decisions regarding movement are made from empirical data from multiple sources
  • Get more data at each stage.
  • SPED should only be an option once it has been determined that child has an inadequate response to intervention.
requirements for rti dx
Requirements for RTI Dx
  • Availability of measures to evaluate growth.
  • Availability of research based intervention.
  • Ability of the person providing the intervention.
  • Ability of the person making the decision as to the child’s responsiveness.
ways to measure response
Ways to Measure Response
  • Measure pretest/posttest scores and calculate statistics
    • ANCOVA using control and treatment groups.
    • ANOVA using repeated measure design.
  • Growth curve analysis (GCA) using hierarchical linear models
    • Determine common growth curves for a class of students or an intervention group
    • Determine an individual’s growth curve
    • Compare the individual growth curve to the group’s growth curve
rti models of diagnosis
RTI Models of Diagnosis
  • Dual-Discepancy Model (CBM-DD)
    • Fuchs and Fuchs
  • Functional Assessment Model
    • Applied Behavioral Analysis groups
dual discrepancy model cbm dd
Dual-Discrepancy Model (CBM-DD)
  • Student performs below classroom peers.
  • Student shows a learning rate below that of peers.
two stage process for cbm dd
Two-Stage Process for CBM-DD
  • Problem Identification
    • Is student’s achievement sufficiently deficient to justify more testing?
    • Screen by giving 3-5 CBMs on different days (look at median score)
    • Compare CBM data for that child w/local norm data OR with another child in the class with average skills.
  • Prob. Certification
    • Does the child’s problems warrant SPED?
    • After giving 3-5 CBMs if the child is scoring between 25th-75th percentile, then they are average.
3 phase process for ld eligibility phase i
3 Phase Process for LD Eligibility: Phase I
  • Document that the child is receiving adequate classroom instruction.
  • Do this by providing weekly CBM for all students for 6 weeks.
  • Look to see if any child:
    • A. Has a 1 SD difference b/w his/her scores and rest of class
    • B. Has a 1 SD difference b/w his/her slope of improvement (growth)
3 phase process for ld eligibility phase ii
3 Phase Process for LD Eligibility: Phase II
  • Assessment team member and general education teacher design an intervention for the child.
  • CBM data are collected to judge the effectiveness of the intervention.
  • Teacher provides at least 2 interventions if first doesn’t work.
  • If both don’t work, go to Phase III.
3 phase process for ld eligibility phase iii
3 Phase Process for LD Eligibility: Phase III
  • Design and implementation of extended intervention plan
  • Provide an ~8 week IEP and then meet again. The team may:
    • Decide to keep IEP on long-term.
    • Consider a more intensive intervention.
    • Consider a less intensive intervention.
    • Ask for more data
functional assessment model
Functional Assessment Model
  • Understand academic failure related to child’s environment.
  • Analyze the factors that explain poor performance and intervene accordingly
functional assess model 5 reasons kids fail
Functional Assess. Model5 Reasons Kids Fail
  • “Won’t do it”
  • Lack of practice and feedback
  • Not enough help doing it
  • Has not had to do it before (instructional demands do not promote mastery)
  • It is too hard (poor match b/w child and instruction).
rti assignment
RTI Assignment
  • The set-up:
    • 8 y.o. boy is performing poorly in reading comprehension compared to others in class.
  • The data:
    • Test based on the first 100 words on the “Fry List”
    • Baseline scores are: 5, 7, 12. Class average=30; SD =4
    • An intervention is put in place (direct instruction).
    • During the intervention, his scores are: 12, 18, 20.
    • Following the intervention, his scores are: 12, 12, 14.
  • Answer the following:
    • Did the teacher correctly refer the child?
    • Did the teacher use the correct tool for assessment?
    • Did the teacher use a researched based intervention?
    • Did the child respond to the intervention?
    • Does the child need special education?