Course Code : EBB 337 Course Title : Advanced Materials and Composites Course Unit : 3 Type of Course : C - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Course Code : EBB 337 Course Title : Advanced Materials and Composites Course Unit : 3 Type of Course : C PowerPoint Presentation
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Course Code : EBB 337 Course Title : Advanced Materials and Composites Course Unit : 3 Type of Course : C

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Course Code : EBB 337 Course Title : Advanced Materials and Composites Course Unit : 3 Type of Course : C
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Course Code : EBB 337 Course Title : Advanced Materials and Composites Course Unit : 3 Type of Course : C

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  1. Course Code : EBB 337 • Course Title : Advanced Materials and Composites • Course Unit : 3 • Type of Course : Core • Name of academics : Dr. Mariatti Jaafar • Dr. Ahmad Azmin Mohamed • Dr. Zuhailawati Hussin • (6) Contribution of Assessment: 70% final examination & 30% course work (15% Test and 15% Assignment/PBL)

  2. Course Objectives/Course Outcomes (CO) • 1. To classify different types of advanced composite materials • 2. To select and justify a suitable advanced composite materials for specific applications • 3. To propose a suitable fabrication technique of advanced composite materials for specific applications • 4. To apply suitable theory to estimate the properties of the advanced composite materials

  3. EBB 337 (Advanced Materials & Composites)

  4. References • R.F. Gibson, Principles of Composite Materials Mechanics, McGraw Hill, Inc, 1994. • F.L. Matthews, R.D. Rawlings, Composite Materials; Engineering & Science, Chapman & Hall, 1994. • R.P Sheldon, Composite Polymeric Materials, Applied Science Publisher, 1982 • S. C. Sharma, Composite Materials, Narosa Publishing House, 2000

  5. Test 1 – 16 Jan. 2009 (Friday) • Short Assignment (not more than 5 pages;2 in a group)- due date 9 Jan. 2009 • Find an article from Journal on the following titles; • 1) Nanoparticles filled Polymer matrix composites for food packaging applications • 2) Nanoparticles filled Polymer matrix composites for electronic packaging applications • 3) Natural fiber reinforced Polymer matrix composites for construction or automotive applications • 4) Synthetic fiber reinforced Polymer matrix composites for aerospace applications • 5) Particulate filler filled Polymer matrix composites for medical applications

  6. Short Assignment • Summarize the followings; • Materials used (what is the matrix, reinforcement/filler, etc) • Processing involved (hand lay-up, vacuum technique, injection molding, etc.) • Properties of composites measured, relate the properties of composites compared to monolithic materials

  7. Composites vs. monolithic materials

  8. What is Composites? • Combination of 2 or more materials • Each of the materials must exist more than 5% • Presence of interphase • The properties shown by the composite materials are differed from the initial materials • Can be produced by various processing techniques Composite materials- a new emerging class of materials to overcome a current limits of monolithic of conventional materials

  9. Constituents of composite materials • Matrix phase • Continuous phase, the primary phase. • It holds the dispersed phase and shares a load with it. • 2. Dispersed (reinforcing) phase • The second phase (or phases) is imbedded in the matrix in a • continuous/discontinuous form. • Dispersed phase is usually stronger than the matrix, therefore it is sometimes • called reinforcing phase. • 3. Interface • Zone across which matrix and reinforcing phases interact (chemical, physical, • mechanical)

  10. Matrix: Function however the distribution of loads depends on the interfacial bondings

  11. Reinforcement: Function

  12. Reinforcement: Function depends on matrix • Metal matrix: to increase the hardness and creep resistance at high temp. • Polymer matrix: to improve stiffness, strength and toughness • Ceramic matrix: to improve toughness

  13. Reinforcement can be in the form of: • Continuous fiber • Organic fiber- i.e. Kevlar, polyethylene • Inorganic fiber- i.e. glass, alumina, carbon • Natural fiber- i.e. asbestos, jute, silk • Short fiber • whiskers • Particle • Wire

  14. Interface: Function • To transfer the stress from matrix to reinforcement Sometimes surface treatment is carried out to achieve the required bonding to the matrix

  15. Interfaces & Interphases • Figure 1.2

  16. Types of matrix (natural and synthetic) • Natural • Silica sand, limestone (CaCO3), talc, etc • Starch, epoxy based on soy bean, chitosan, etc • Synthetic • Fumed silica, fused silica, glass, etc • Epoxy, polyester, PP, PE, etc

  17. Types of reinforcement (natural and synthetic) • Natural • Silica sand, limestone (CaCO3), talc, etc • Natural fibers, wood, etc • Synthetic • Glass fiber, boron fibers, etc • Fumed silica, fused silica, glass, etc

  18. Classifications of composites • Matrix; PMC, MMC, CMC • Function; electrical & structure • Geometry of reinforcements; fiber composites & particulate composites

  19. Classification based on Geometry of reinforcement Composite materials Particulate- composites Fiber-composites Random orientation Uni -directional Random orientation Uni- directional Two- directional

  20. Examples of composites • Particulate & random • Discontinuous fibers & unidirectional • Discontinuous fibers & random • Continuous fibers & unidirectional

  21. Classification based on Matrices Composite materials Matrices Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) Metal Matrix Composites MMC) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) Thermoset Thermoplastic Rubber

  22. Widely used- ease of processing & lightweight

  23. Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) • Generate wide interest in research • Not as widely use as PMC • Higher strength, stiffness & fracture toughness • Can withstand elevated temperature in corrosive environment than PMC • Most metal and alloy can be used as matrices

  24. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) • Able to withstand high temperature (>1649ºC) & brittle • Used in aeronautics, military, etc • Carbon and glass are common matrix used in CMC

  25. Natural Composites • Wood • Consists of cellulose, hemiselulose & lignin • Cellulose- the strongest component, 65% unidirectional alignment • Lignin behave as adhesive, tighten the wood components

  26. Natural Composites • Bone • Example; hydroxyapatite reinforced collagen composites

  27. Pole (Construction Industry) • Traditional wood→steel→concrete→polymer composite (made of layers of glass fabric + resins) • Advantages of Polymer Composites 1) won't rust, or corrode 2)require no preservatives 3) light-weight, lighter than aluminum, wood, steel or concrete. 4) the lowest possible total installed cost

  28. Modern vaulting polesHere is an example of a vaulting pole made from glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites

  29. Benefits of Composites??? • Improved properties (thermal, mechanical, electrical, etc) • Many end-applications

  30. Properties of composites depend on • Amount of phase - Amount/proportion (can be expressed in weight fraction (Wf) or volume fraction (Vf))of phases strongly influence the properties of composite materials. Xc = Xf Vf + Xm (1 - Vf ) - Rule of Mixture Xc = Properties of composites Xf = Properties of fiber Xm= Properties of matrix

  31. Voids • Free volume • Gas emission leads to voids in the final product • In composites- Voids exist in the matrix, interface and in between fiber & fiber • Voids create stress concentration points- influence the properties of the composites

  32. Geometry of dispersed phase (particle size, distribution, orientation) • Shape of dispersed phase (particle- spherical or irregular, flaky, whiskers, etc) • Particle/fiber size ( fiber- short, long, continuous); particle (nano or micron size) • Orientation of fiber/particle (unidirection, bi-directions, many directions)- influence isotropic dan an-isotropic properties • Dictribution of dispersed phase (homogenus/uniform, inhomogenus)

  33. Examples of different composite geometrical arrangements