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Lake Environment Influence on Air Quality Patterns. Case Study: September 2-4 2008 Sarah Wong Ontario Storm Prediction Centre David Sills Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Qian Li Ontario Region Science Section. AQHI Analysis in OSPC. Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) - July 2007

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lake environment influence on air quality patterns

Lake Environment Influence on Air Quality Patterns

Case Study: September 2-4 2008

Sarah Wong

Ontario Storm Prediction Centre

David Sills

Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research

Qian Li

Ontario Region Science Section

aqhi analysis in ospc
AQHI Analysis in OSPC
  • Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) - July 2007
  • Assesses combined effects of NO2, O3 and PM2.5
  • CHRONOS - Operational Model
  • GEM-MACH 15 - Experimental Model
    • Only for atmospheric compounds O3 and NO2
gem mach15 vs chronos modelling domains
GEM-MACH15 vs CHRONOS Modelling Domains

CHRONOS

GEM-MACH15

  • Resolution:
  • 350 x 250 gridpoints, secant PS
  • 21 km horizontally
  • 24 vertical levels up to ~ 6 km
  • Δt = 3600 s
  • Resolution:
  • 348 x 465 gridpoints, rotated LL
  • 15 km horizontally
  • 58 vertical levels up to ~ 30 km
  • Δt = 450 s

Courtesy: Mike Moran AQRD - EC

main differences in chemical processes between chronos and gem mach15
Main Differences in Chemical Processes Between CHRONOS and GEM-MACH15

Courtesy: Mike Moran AQRD - EC

how does lake influence aq
How does Lake influence AQ?
  • Lake Breeze?
  • Marine inversion?
  • What pattern is revealed by CHRONOS and GEM-MACH 15?
  • Analyze results from 4 Toronto AQ stations, Chatham and 2 Windsor AQ Stations
    • September 2-4 2008
aq monitoring stations
AQ Monitoring Stations

YKZ

YYZ

Toronto

YTZ

WWB

The Greater Toronto Area

slide8

L

H

slide15

METAR CYQG 031700Z 25004KT 10SM FEW190 32/17 A2997 RMK AC2 SLP146 SKY23=

METAR CYQG 031800Z 00000KT 10SM BKN160 33/17 A2996 RMK AC4 SLP142

58011 SKY57=

METAR CYQG 031900Z 11007KT 10SM BKN070 35/17 A2993 RMK CU4 SLP131 SKY56=

12z 2008-09-02 GEM-REG Windsor Sept 2nd, 18Z

12z 2008-09-02 GEM-REG Toronto Sept 2nd, 18Z

METAR CYYZ 021700Z 17007KT 15SM FEW250 25/16 A3014 RMK CI1 SLP204 SKY00=

METAR CYYZ 021800Z 13007KT 15SM FEW250 26/15 A3011 RMK CI1 SLP196 SKY00=

METAR CYYZ 021900Z 16007KT 15SM FEW250 26/15 A3011 RMK CI1 SLP194 SKY00=

2008 09 02 12z valid at 2008 09 02 18utc operational chronos experimental gem mach 15
2008-09-02 12Z Valid at: 2008-09-02 18UTCOperational Chronos Experimental Gem-Mach 15

NO2

Ozone

slide17

12z 2008-09-02 GEM-REG Windsor Sept 3rd, 00Z

METAR CYQG 030000Z 17004KT 15SM FEW300 27/11 A3004 RMK CI1 SLP1698004 SKY12=METAR CYQG 030100Z 12004KT 15SM SKC 25/12 A3004 RMK SLP171 SKY00= METAR CYQG 030200Z 00000KT 15SM SKC 23/13 A3006 RMK SLP176 SKY00=

12z 2008-09-02 GEM-REG Toronto Sept 3rd, 00Z

METAR CYYZ 030000Z 15003KT 15SM FEW250 24/13 A3005 RMK CI1 SLP176 57011 SKY12=

METAR CYYZ 030100Z 16003KT 15SM FEW250 23/13 A3005 RMK CI1 SLP175 SKY12=

METAR CYYZ 030200Z 17002KT 15SM SKC 22/13 A3005 RMK SLP175 SKY00=

slide18

2008-09-02 12Z Valid at: 2008-09-03 00UTCOperational Chronos Experimental Gem-Mach 15

NO2

Ozone

slide19

2008-09-02 12Z Valid at: 2008-09-03 06UTCOperational Chronos Experimental Gem-Mach 15

NO2

Ozone

slide20

2008-09-02 12Z Valid at: 2008-09-03 15UTCOperational Chronos Experimental Gem-Mach 15

NO2

Ozone

slide21

2008-09-02 12Z Valid at: 2008-09-03 18UTCOperational Chronos Experimental Gem-Mach 15

NO2

Ozone

slide22

2008-09-02 12Z Valid at: 2008-09-04 03UTCOperational Chronos Experimental Gem-Mach 15

NO2

Ozone

aq monitoring stations2
AQ Monitoring Stations

YKZ

YYZ

Toronto

YTZ

WWB

The Greater Toronto Area

slide24

METAR CYYZ 031800Z 24006KT

METAR CYYZ 031900Z 22006KT

METAR CYYZ 032000Z 26004KT

METAR CYYZ 032100Z 27006KT

METAR CYYZ 021800Z 13007KT

METAR CYYZ 021900Z 16007KT

METAR CYYZ 022000Z 17006KT

METAR CYYZ 022100Z 16005KT

3 Hr Running Avg. Ozone (ppb)

METAR CYYZ 032300Z 27007KT 15SM BKN140 29/16 A2989 RMK AC7 SLP119 SKY99=

METAR CYYZ 040000Z CCA ///// SKC RMK REPORT MISSING ALTM MISG=

METAR CYYZ 040100Z 36014KT 12SM OVC065 23/18 A2992 RMK SC8 SLP131 SKYXX

3 Hr Running Avg. NO2 (ppb)

slide25

METAR CYYZ 031800Z 24006KT

METAR CYYZ 031900Z 22006KT

METAR CYYZ 032000Z 26004KT

METAR CYYZ 032100Z 27006KT

METAR CYYZ 021800Z 13007KT

METAR CYYZ 021900Z 16007KT

METAR CYYZ 022000Z 17006KT

METAR CYYZ 022100Z 16005KT

3 Hr Running Avg. Ozone (ppb)

METAR CYYZ 032300Z 27007KT 15SM BKN140 29/16 A2989 RMK AC7 SLP119 SKY99=

METAR CYYZ 040000Z CCA ///// SKC RMK REPORT MISSING ALTM MISG=

METAR CYYZ 040100Z 36014KT 12SM OVC065 23/18 A2992 RMK SC8 SLP131 SKYXX

3 Hr Running Avg. NO2 (ppb)

slide26

METAR CYKZ 031600Z 28006KT

METAR CYKZ 031700Z 25004KT

METAR CYKZ 031800Z 31005KT

METAR CYKZ 031900Z 31003KT

METAR CYKZ 021600Z 34004KT METAR CYKZ 021700Z 23003KT METAR CYKZ 021800Z 20003KT METAR CYKZ 021900Z 14004KT

3 Hr Running Avg. Ozone (ppb)

METAR CYKZ 032300Z 26006KT 15SM BKN150 29/14 A2989 RMK AC6 SLP119 METAR CYKZ 040000Z 34010KT 12SM FEW070 FEW110 BKN120 24/18

SPECI CYKZ 040025Z 33014KT 10SM -RA FEW070 FEW110 OVC120 RMK

METAR CYKZ 040100Z 34009KT 12SM FEW068 BKN130 OVC180 23/17 A2992

3 Hr Running Avg. NO2 (ppb)

slide27

METAR CYTZ 031800Z 21005KT

METAR CYTZ 031900Z 18007KT

METAR CYTZ 032000Z 18006KT METAR CYTZ 032100Z 19008KT

METAR CYTZ 021700Z 14005KT METAR CYTZ 021800Z 14006KT METAR CYTZ 021900Z 16004KT

METAR CYTZ 022000Z 19004KT

3 Hr Running Avg. Ozone (ppb)

METAR CYTZ 032300Z AUTO 23003KT 9SM FEW084 25/19 A2986 RMK SLP113 56010

METAR CYTZ 040000Z AUTO 32003KT 7SM FEW084 24/19 A2987 RMK SLP117

METAR CYTZ 040100Z AUTO 34005KT 9SM FEW076 SCT093 26/18 A2990 RMK

SPECI CYTZ 040132Z AUTO 33008KT 8SM -RA

3 Hr Running Avg. NO2 (ppb)

slide29

METAR XRG 021800Z 14007KT

METAR XRG 021900Z 14007KT

METAR XRG 022000Z 13007KT

METAR XRG 022100Z 14005KT

METAR XRG 021800Z 15006KT

METAR XRG 021900Z 16008KT

METAR XRG 022000Z 17007KT

METAR XRG 022100Z 14006KT

METAR XRG 031300Z 00001KT

METAR XRG 031400Z 16004KT

METAR XRG 031500Z 15004KT

METAR XRG 031600Z 15004KT

slide30

METAR CYQG 031800Z 00000KT METAR CYQG 031900Z 11007KT

METAR CYQG 032000Z 09006KT METAR CYQG 032100Z 15007KT

METAR CYQG 021800Z 10002KT

METAR CYQG 021900Z 08006KT

METAR CYQG 022000Z 07007KT

METAR CYQG 022100Z 07008KT

METAR CYQG 032200Z 28011G19KT 6SM -SHRA HZ BKN065TCU OVC180 26/22

SPECI CYQG 032205Z 29016KT 5SM -TSRA HZ BKN067CB OVC180 RMK CB7AC1 SKYXX= SPECI CYQG 032233Z CCA 34008KT 5SM -SHRA HZ OVC060 RETS RMK SC8 CB

METAR CYQG 032300Z CCA 34005KT 5SM -SHRA HZ OVC058 24/21

slide31

METAR CYQG 021800Z 10002KT

METAR CYQG 021900Z 08006KT

METAR CYQG 022000Z 07007KT

METAR CYQG 022100Z 07008KT

METAR CYQG 031800Z 00000KT METAR CYQG 031900Z 11007KT

METAR CYQG 032000Z 09006KT METAR CYQG 032100Z 15007KT

3 Hr Running Avg. Ozone (ppb)

Same Max NO2 in GEM-MACH15 2008-09-02 00Z run but peak was 4 hours later - 00Z Sept 4th instead of 20Z Sept 3rd

METAR CYQG 032200Z 28011G19KT 6SM -SHRA HZ BKN065TCU OVC180 26/22

SPECI CYQG 032205Z 29016KT 5SM -TSRA HZ BKN067CB OVC180 RMK CB7AC1 SKYXX= SPECI CYQG 032233Z CCA 34008KT 5SM -SHRA HZ OVC060 RETS RMK SC8 CB

METAR CYQG 032300Z CCA 34005KT 5SM -SHRA HZ OVC058 24/21

3 Hr Running Avg. NO2 (ppb)

high o 3 over regions near lake
High O3 over regions near lake
  • Less night-time deposition of O3 over the lakes due to less surface roughness
  • O3 gets trapped under marine inversion and gets pushed on-shore due to lake breeze
  • Comes on-shore during the day so it is influenced by the lake breeze
chronos vs gem mach 15
CHRONOS vs. GEM-MACH 15
  • Very hard to model NO2 patterns
    • It is a local pollutant – challenges with this
  • Ozone pattern is generally picked up well by CHRONOS including effects of lake breeze and marine inversions
  • GEM-MACH 15 appears to underestimate ozone concentrations over sampled areas
thank you

Thank You!

Questions?