FBA and PBSP Behavior Problems at School? School Discipline Issues? Hampton Township School District
What You Need to Know. . . • Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) • Role of the IEP Team • Functional Behavior Assessments (FBA) • Positive Behavior Support Plans (PBSP)
Role of the IEP Team *Special Factors The IEP team shall, in the case of a child whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others, consider, where appropriate, strategies, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports that address that behavior. IDEA 300.346(2)(i)
What is Positive Behavioral Support? A new way of thinking about behavior Broadens intervention from only one approach - reducing challenging behavior to….. Encompasses multiple approaches: changing systems, altering environments, teaching skills, and appreciating (actively acknowledging) positive behavior
PBS Includes A team process for goal setting Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior intervention plan design (PBSP), implementation, and evaluation This means that everyone is prepared to interact with the child in the same way.
Functional Behavior Assessment Overview In this section we will address the following questions…… • What is an FBA? • What are the requirements? • When do we need to complete an FBA? • What are the types of assessment? • What does the FBA result in?
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) §14.133(a), §711.46(a) FBA is a process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) of behavior in order to write an effective positive behavior support plan. Behavior support programs and plans must be based on a functional assessment of behavior and utilize positive behavior techniques
When do we need to complete an FBA? • Does the student’s behavior impeded his/her learning or learning of others? • Does the student’s behavior significantly differ from that of his/her classmates? • Does the student’s behavior lessen the possibility of successful learning for the student and others? • Have past efforts to address the student’s behavior using standard interventions been unsuccessful? • Does the student’s behavior represent a behavioral deficit or excess, rather than a cultural difference? • Is the student’s behavior serious, persistent, chronic, or a threat to the safety of the student or others? • If the behavior persists, is some disciplinary action likely to result?
Assumptions Underlying FBA • Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose. • To get • To avoid • Behavior is related to the context within which it occurs
Only 2 Basic Functions of Behavior • What is an FBA?
INFORMAL EASIER SIMPLE RESPONSIVE INDIRECT DIRECT NOT RESPONSIVE COMPLICATED HARDER FORMAL Archival Review Problem Solving Meeting 1.Informal Checklist Functional Assessment Interview Initial Line of Inquiry Brief Observation/Scatter Plot 2. Indirect/ Simple 3. Complex A-B-C data Structured, Direct Observation What are the levels of assessment? FBA LEVELS Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt
What is an FBA? All levels of FBA maintain the same goals: • Define the target behavior. • Identify the events/antecedent triggers that reliably predict the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the target behavior. • Identify the consequences that maintain the behavior. • Identify setting events that increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the targeted behavior
IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Chapter 14 New Requirement High Confidence in Hypothesis Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment NO Satisfactory Improvement YES Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly 13 Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107gsbrieffba.ppt
8 Steps . . . FBA to PBSP 1. Identify and agree on the behavior(s) that most need to change. 2. Determine where the behaviors occur and where they do not. Identify what may contribute to the behaviors. The team will ask some questions. 3. Collect data on the child’s performance from as many sources as possible. 4. Develop a hypothesis about why problem behaviors occur (the function of the behaviors).
8 Steps . . . FBA to PBSP 5. Identify other behaviors that can be taught that will serve the same function for the child. 6. Address Antecedents and Consequences. The team develops and uses positive behavioral interventions that are written into the child’s IEP and/or positive behavior support plan. 7. Evaluate the success of the interventions. 8. Change or fine-tune the plan as needed.
Steps to Develop Positive Behavior Support Plans • Define target behavior • Collect data • Indirect measures • Direct measures • Formulate hypothesis (validate) • Develop intervention plan (PBSP) • Implement the plan, monitor and adjust 16
FBA and Consent Will the FBA focus on the educational and behavioral needs of a specific child? • If so, then the FBA qualifies as an evaluation or reevaluation under IDEA and triggers the need to seek written parental consent. • If, the district uses an FBA as a widespread intervention tool to improve the behavior of all students in its schools, the FBA is not an evaluation and parental consent is not necessary.
Steps to Develop Positive Behavior Support Plans • Define target behavior • Collect data • Indirect measures • Direct measures • Formulate hypothesis (validate) • Develop intervention plan (PBSP) • Implement the plan, monitor and adjust 18
Steps to Develop Positive Behavior Support Plans • Define target behavior • Collect data • Indirect measures • Direct measures • Formulate hypothesis (validate) • Develop intervention plan (PBSP) • Implement the plan, monitor and adjust 19
FBA – When is Written Consent Required? • Initial Evaluation • Reevaluation • if the purpose of data collection is specific to an individual student’s educational and behavioral needs • if additional data is necessary to determine nature + extent of special education and related services needed to develop or modify behavior interventions and PBS in student’s IEP
FBA – When is Written Consent NOT Required? • Reviewing existing data • Administering a test or other evaluation that is administered to all children, unless parent consent is required for all children • Review of behavior interventions in school as a whole • Screening to determine instructional strategies for curriculum implementation
Steps to Develop Positive Behavior Support Plans • Define target behavior • Collect data • Indirect measures • Direct measures • Formulate hypothesis (validate) • Develop intervention plan (PBSP) • Implement the plan, monitor and adjust 22
What does the FBA result in? • Problem behaviors are irrelevant • Aversive events are removed • Access to reinforcers are readily available • Problem behaviors are inefficient • Appropriate behavioral alternatives are taught • Appropriate behavioral alternatives are known and used • Problem behaviors are ineffective • Problem behaviors are not reinforced • Desired behavior ARE reinforced
Using the FBA Data 24 • Short term solution • Manipulate Antecedents • Manipulate Consequences • Teach Socially Acceptable Functionally Equivalent Behavior • Long term solution • To remediate skill deficits so that the problem behavior is unnecessary • To design consequences to maintain the new desired behaviors
Steps to Develop Positive Behavior Support Plans 4. Develop intervention plan (PBSP) • Design Antecedent strategies • Design Consequence strategies • Select and teach replacement behaviors • Implement the plan • Monitor and adjust program 25
Assessment Summary When___(antecedents to the behavior of concern)______________ the student___(behavior of concern)_________________________ to___(perceived function of the behavior of concern)____________
V. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES – Include, as appropriate, academic and functional goals. Use as many copies of this page as needed to plan appropriately. Specially designed instruction may be listed with each goal/objective or listed in Section VI. Short term learning outcomes are required for students who are gifted. The short term learning outcomes related to the student’s gifted program may be listed under Goals or Short Term Objectives. SHORT TERM OBJECTIVES – Required for students with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards (PASA).
VI. PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS AND SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION FOR THE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLAN:
Parts of a PBSP • Measurable Annual Goal • Reasonable expectations within 12 month period • Must contain • Condition – situation, setting, or given material • Name – of the student • Behavior – the action the student will be expected to perform • Criteria – how we know the student has mastered the skill
Parts of a PBSP • Measurable Annual Goal • Must be a direct relationship between the FBA Results and the Annual Goal • Progress Monitoring of the Goal • How? • When? • Short Term Objectives
Parts of a PBSP – Measurable Annual Goal • Example • During whole class and small group instruction and discussion, Chad will participate and decrease off-topic comments and discussions to no more than three off-topic comments and discussions per week over three consecutive weeks. Current baseline is average of twenty-one off-topic comments and discussions per week.
INTERVENTIONS • Manipulate the Antecedents • Teach an alternative Behavior • Manipulate the Consequences REMEDIATE THE SKILL DEFICITS
Desired and Replacement Behaviors • Desired Behaviors – the behavior that you want the student to perform • Long-term • May or May Not Serve the Same Function • Replacement Behaviors – the behavior you will teach the student to perform that serves the same function as the problem behavior • Short Term • Plan for fading B
Positive Behavior Support Plans • Components • Replacement Behavior • (teaching and maintaining) • Identify functionally equivalent replacement behavior. • Consider… • Is the replacement behavior effective and efficient for the student to use? • The Response Effort: how difficult is it for the person to perform the behavior? (physically and/or cognitively) B 34
Escape Replacement Behavior To Get/ Attention • Request a Work Check • Request Assistance-help and attention • Request Companionship • Request Attention from staff, from peers • Rejecting “No thank you” • Request a break from activity, person • Request an alternate activity • Ask to work somewhere else
Replacement Behavior • The FUNCTIONALLY EQUIVALENT and SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE behavior that replaces the problem behavior • Must know the FUNCTION of problem behavior
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR behavior CURSING AT STAFF function ESCAPE TASKS
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR behavior function CURSING AT STAFF X ESCAPE TASKS REQUEST ALTERNATIVE TASK
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR CURSING X ESCAPE TASK REQUEST ALTERNATIVE TASK CURSING X ESCAPE TASK !?!?
Replacement Behaviors • Must TEACH Replacement Behavior • Must REINFORCE Replacement Behavior with SAME (or stronger) reinforcement as challenging behavior
INTERVENTIONS • Manipulate the Antecedents • Teach an alternative Behavior • Manipulate the Consequences REMEDIATE THE SKILL DEFICITS
Positive Behavior Support Plans • Components • Antecedent (prevention) strategies • Remove/reduce identified antecedents to the behavior of concern • Make the behavior unnecessary in specific situations • Assist with the performance of the replacement behavior (cues and prompts) • Long term strategies to remediate skill deficits A 42
Manipulate Antecedents • Setting Event Modifications – identify any changes that could make these events less likely or less influential. • Antecedent Modifications – Identify changes that can be made in immediate antecedents to make problem behavior irrelevant.
Manipulate Antecedents • Consider the following • Daily schedule • Level of prompting/assistance • Curriculum or features of task • Groupings of students
Manipulate Antecedents • Daily Schedule • Is it readable? • Is it known? • How many tasks before a break? • Is it adhered to? • Is it predictable? • How much choice do students have in creating/modifying the schedule?
Manipulate Antecedents Level of Prompting/Assistance • Prime, Prompt, Fade, Reinforce • Select the skill you will teach • Determine the type of prompt that will be needed to make the learner successful • Determine how the prompt will be faded To teach: • Tell or show the learner exactly what you want him to do or say (Prime) • Immediately prompt the learner • Reinforce the learner • Repeat and attempt to fade the prompt
Positive Behavior Support Plans Components Consequence Strategies Reinforcement for performance of the replacement behavior that achieves the same function as the behavior of concern (get or escape). C 47
Principles of Reinforcement • Anything that increases a behavior • Affects you like gravity – whether you are aware of it or not. • Different for individuals • Consumables • Manipulative • Activities • Social • Physical • Personal Sundberg, 2009
Types of Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement • The delivery of something that increases a behavior • Edible • Attention • Money • Negative Reinforcement • The removal of something that increases a behavior • Alarm clock • Telephone • Requesting a break REINFORCEMENT must be related the FUNCTION of the Behavior
Reinforcement Guidelines 1. Timing – deliver reinforcers as soon as possible after the behavior 2. Quantity/Quality– reinforcers must be important enough to cause an increase in behavior 3. Contingency– must be a connection between the behavior and reinforcer 4. Deprivation/Satiation – do not overuse reinforcer