17.1 Notes Check A1. In April 1921 reparations were set at _____ Billion marks.a. 10 b. 132 c. 200 d. 5002. There was rapid inflation in Germany, because they __________ money.A. Spent b. Gave away c. owed3. According to the Dawes Plan, the US loaned Germany $_____ million?4. Who was the president (last name) of the Weimar Republic?5. By 1933, how many million people in the US were unemployed?
World Between the Wars Today we are learning about the culture of the 1920s.
Facts about the decade in America • 106,521,537 people in the United States • 2,132,000 unemployed, Unemployment 5.2% • Life expectancy: Male 53.6, Female 54.6 • 343.000 in military (down from 1,172,601 in 1919) • Average annual earnings $1236; Teacher's salary $970 • Dow Jones High 100 Low 67 • Illiteracy rate reached a new low of 6% of the population. • Gangland crime included murder, swindles, racketeering • It took 13 days to reach California from New York • There were 387,000 miles of paved road.
Prohibition • A period in U.S. history during which the production, distribution, and sale of alcohol were illegal; Prohibition began in January 1920, with the ratification of the 18th Amendment. • Temperance -Total abstinence from alcohol
Speakeasies • Hidden saloons and nightclubs that sold liquor illegally during prohibition • Formed in the 1920's as a means to get around the everyday hassle of law enforcement watching for people to violate the 18th Amendment. • As a result of Prohibition, the speakeasy was an established institution. • For every legitimate saloon that closed as a result of the new law, a half dozen underground palaces sprung up.
Popular Language/Slang In the 1920s, slang started to gain popularity. Morals were now being questioned, and youth culture was on the rise because of urbanization. Prohibition was causing people to use slang to hide bootlegging, and to help keep speakeasies hidden. Other people just wanted to be unique.
baloney - nonsense • cheaters - glasses • dumb Dora - stupid girl • flat tire - dull, boring person • gaga - crazy/silly • gam - girl’s leg • hard-boiled - tough • ritzy - elegant • white cow - vanilla milkshake SLANG
Clothing Trends Some clothing that was trendy back in the 1920s for females were: shorter skirts, cloche hats, silk stockings, fake jewelry, furs, and turned down hosiery. Some clothing that was trendy back in the 1920s for males were: knickers, bow ties, and “oxford” bags.
Dance Marathons Dance Marathons became very popular in the 1920s. They gained popularity because it was suppose to be quick easy money for out of work people. Most people went for the money, but other went to gain stardom. The music was played slow to hopefully lull you to sleep, but twice an hour it would be picked up, these were called sprints. The only real rule was, no falling asleep. Some contests would have breaks, but usually only a half hour for the first week, and it would go down until there were none left. There was the occasional staged contestants, to help cause fights and to entertain onlookers. The longest dance marathon recorded was twenty-two weeks and three and a half days. Dancers would do anything to win, one woman would even pickle her feet. Dance marathons were later outlawed due to the hard physical strain.
Games Games started to gain popularity in the 1920s. Whether you were playing with your family or friends, it was a guaranteed good time. Some popular game were, Mahjong, Ouija boards, and Crossword puzzles.
Flappers Flappers were young women of the era who defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior. They wore short skirts baring their arms and lower leg, had bobbed hair, rolled down their hose, and powdered their knees. The typical flapper was a considerably young woman and often offended the older generation. Women were finally starting to forget traditions, and being the stay at home wife, and enjoying who they were.
Music • Jazz music started to get hot in in the 1920s. • Youth started to go out dancing at clubs and • speakeasies. • That’s where jazz started to get it’s bad name. Jazz started to get blamed for just about every problem. • Parents and other adults opposed to jazz, said that young men and women that danced to jazz caused them to be morally loose.
New African American art, literature and music brings new ideas and cultures to the United States, not only affecting African Americans but all of society. It was the beginning of new artists and writers such as Palmer Hayden and Langston Hughes, who gained their popularity at the time.