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Proboscidea

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  1. Proboscidea By Ciera Kinley Bio. 335 01

  2. Proboscidea • Contains one living family (Elephantidae) and several extinct families • Order dates back to 55-60 MYA, with first member being the Moeritheres • Currently: - 1 family - 3 species - 4 subspecies

  3. Elephantidae • Trunks are actually long noses, used for breathing, smelling, drinking, and grabbing things • Trunk alone contains about 100,000 muscles • Eat roots, grasses, fruit, and bark • Rarely sleep, but roam great distances

  4. Elephantidae (cont’d.) • Females travel in large herds with young, while males usually roam alone • Pregnancies last for about 22 months • Calves stay under protection of mothers for much longer than most mammals

  5. ElephasmaximusAsianElephant

  6. Elephasmaximus • Identified by their smaller, rounder ears • Live up to 60 years • Only males have tusks • Reach sexual maturity at 9-15 years of age Range: Southeast Asia

  7. AsianElephantSubspecies Indian Elephant Elephas maximus indicus Sri Lankan Elephant Elephas maximus maximus Sumatran Elephant Elephas maximus sumatrensis Borneo Elephant Elephas maximus borneensis

  8. LoxodontaAfrican Elephants

  9. Loxodonta • Large ears radiate heat to keep them cool • Tusks used to dig for food and water, and to strip bark off of trees • Live up to 70 years

  10. Loxodonta cyclontis African Forest Elephant • Smaller of African elephants • Thin, straight tusks • Smoother skin • Found in forests of Republic of Congo Loxodonta africana African Savannah Elephant • Largest land mammal • Bigger, curved tusks • Larger home range • Found in savannah zones of south Africa

  11. References http://www.wcs.org/saving-wildlife/elephants/african-forest-elephant.aspx http://www.wcs.org/saving-wildlife/elephants/savannah-elephant.aspx http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/african-elephant/ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/mesaxonia/proboscidea.html http://elephant.elehost.com/About_Elephants/Stories/Evolution/evolution.html