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Information Technology in Business: Telecommunications, Networks and Internet Basics. Learning Objectives. When you finish this chapter, you will: Recognize why successful managers must be familiar with telecommunications concepts and terminology.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • When you finish this chapter, you will:
    • Recognize why successful managers must be familiar with telecommunications concepts and terminology.
    • Know the principles of communication within a computer system and among computers.
    • Be able to identify the major media and devices that are used in telecommunications.

MIS 221

learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Be able to list and explain the functions of different network layouts and the concept of protocols.
  • Understand how telecommunications can improve operations in organizations.
  • Know the latest developments in telecommunications media and transmission speeds.
  • Understand the historical development of the Internet
  • Understand the main structural components of the Internet
  • Understand how HTML, HTTP, browsers and servers work together to form the WWW

MIS 221

telecommunications in business
Telecommunications in Business
  • Telecommunications
    • Any form of long distance communication, including telephone, television and radio
  • Telecommunications has improved business in three main ways:
    • Better communication
    • Higher efficiency
    • Better distribution of data

MIS 221

what is data communications
What is Data Communications?
  • Data Communications
    • Any transfer of data within a computer, between a computer and another device, or between two computers
  • Integration
    • Business are increasingly integrated in their use of computers, telephony, video and data networks

MIS 221

what is a telecommunications system
What is a Telecommunications System?
  • Compatible hardware and software used to communicate information from one place to another
    • Will include voice, text, graphics, documents and video

MIS 221

a generalized telecommunications system
A Generalized Telecommunications System
  • Hardware (Host computer, front end communication processor, modem, multiplexor)
  • Communications media (Cable or wireless)
  • Communications software
  • Data communications providers
  • Communications protocols
  • Communications applications (EDI, videoconferencing, EFT, etc.)

MIS 221

electronic signals
Electronic Signals
  • Analog
    • Information imbedded in the changing characteristics of the wave
      • Amplitude or frequency based
  • Digital
    • Information imbedded as 1 or 0, on or off

MIS 221

modulation1
Modulation
  • Amplitude Modulation (AM)
  • Frequency Modulation (FM)
  • Phase Modulation

MIS 221

communications devices
Communications Devices
  • Modems
    • Devices that modulate and demodulate signals, converting from analog to digital and digital to analog
  • Multiplexers
    • Devices that allow several telephones or computers to transmit data through a single line
      • Frequency-division multiplexing
      • Time-division multiplexing
  • Front End Processors

MIS 221

channels and media
Channels and Media
  • Communication Channel
    • Physical medium through which data can be communicated.
  • Channel Capacity
    • Narrow band
    • Broadband

MIS 221

channels and media1
Channels and Media
  • Media
    • A medium is any means by which data can be transmitted.
  • Transmission speed
    • A medium’s capacity is determined by the range of bits per second at which it can operate.
      • Baud
      • Repeater

MIS 221

channels and media2
Channels and Media
  • Twisted Pair
    • Telephone line made of a pair of copper wires twisted to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI)
  • Coaxial Cable
    • Commonly used for cable television transmission
      • More expensive than twisted pair
      • Greater transmission rate than twisted pair
      • Much less susceptible to EMI

MIS 221

channels and media3
Channels and Media
  • Microwaves
    • High-frequency, short radio-frequency (RF) waves
      • Terrestrial microwave
      • Satellite microwave
  • Optical Fiber
    • Fiber-optic technology uses light instead of electricity to transmit data.
  • Cellular and Wireless
    • Radio frequency technologies
    • Fixed or mobile

MIS 221

a variety of services
A Variety of Services

Figure 6.15

Services offered by

telecommunications

firms

MIS 221

communication direction
Communication Direction
  • Three Modes of Communication Between Devices
    • Simplex
      • One direction only
    • Half-Duplex
      • Both directions, but only one at a time
    • Full-Duplex
      • Simultaneous in both directions

MIS 221

communication direction2
Communication Direction
  • Asynchronous Communication
    • In asynchronous transmission, the devices are not synchronized by any timing aids.
    • Advantage
      • Does not need sophisticated and expensive timing hardware
    • Disadvantage
      • Overhead, time spent transmitting bits that are not a part of the primary data

MIS 221

communication modes1
Communication Modes
  • Synchronous Communication
    • In synchronous communication, data are transmitted using timing devices.
    • Messages are transmitted in packets.
    • Advantage of synchronous communication
      • Overhead in synchronous communication is significantly smaller than in asynchronous communication.

MIS 221

protocols
Protocols
  • Definition
    • Rules and procedures governing transmission across a network
      • Line access
      • Collision avoidance
  • TCP/IP
    • Standard protocol of the Internet and intranets
    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • Designed for sending large files across unreliable networks
    • Utilizes packets of information

MIS 221

osi standard
OSI Standard
  • Seven Layer Model
    • Governs peer-to-peer communication between software at each layer
    • From physical layer (how bits are transmitted over a channel)
    • To application layer (file transfer, security, etc)

MIS 221

networks
Networks
  • LANs (Local Area Networks)
    • Networks within a building, or within a group of adjacent buildings
  • WANs (Wide Area Networks)
    • Networks across significant distances, either within a single organization or spanning multiple organizations
      • Value-added networks (VANs)
      • Wireless communication

MIS 221

networks devices
Networks Devices
  • Bridge
    • Connects two networks at the data link layer
  • Router
    • Connects two networks at network layer
    • Provides intelligent routing, some network management functions and security
  • Gateways
    • Connect networks using different protocols
  • Switches
    • Incorporate features of bridges and gateways

MIS 221

other standards or lack thereof
Other Standards (or lack thereof)
  • Operating Systems
    • No standard exists
  • Graphical User Interface
    • X Windows
  • Software Applications
    • No standard for programming language, DBMS, etc.

MIS 221

client server computing
Client/Server Computing
  • Enabled by proliferation of powerful desktop computers and decentralized servers
  • Principle
    • Processing functions divided between to separate, distinct computers
    • One requests services of a server (the client)
    • One delivers a service upon request (the server)

MIS 221

example of client server computing
Example of Client/Server Computing
  • Email
    • Email client (Outlook) sends request to POP server for messages
    • POP Server receives and validates request to download email
    • Client processes data received (formats, displays, stores messages)

MIS 221

example of client server computing1
Example of Client/Server Computing
  • Database Transaction
    • Client program running on PC sends query to DBMS running on central server
    • DBMS on server parses and executes the query
    • DBMS assembles resulting data (or status result) and sends it to client
    • Client receives data and processes it (displays it, sends message to user, etc)

MIS 221

benefits of client server computing
Benefits of Client/Server Computing
  • Potential to reduce cost
    • By offloading computing cycles to cheaper and underutilized desktop PC
  • Improved performance
    • Has enabled high-performing graphical user interfaces

MIS 221