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Telecommunications and Networks Learning Objectives Identify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Identify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.
  • Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business.
section i

Section I

The Networked Enterprise

networking the enterprise
Networking the Enterprise
  • Networking business and employees
  • Connecting them to customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.
trends in telecommunications
Trends in Telecommunications
  • Industry
    • More competitive
    • More options for the firm
  • Technology
    • Unrestricted connectivity
    • Easy access for end users
      • Open systems
        • Use common standards for hardware, software, applications, & networking.
trends in telecommunications continued
Trends in Telecommunications (continued)
  • Technology (continued)
    • High degree of interoperability
    • Digital networks
      • Higher transmission speeds
      • Moves larger amounts of information
      • Greater economy
      • Lower error rates
      • Multiple types of communications on the same circuits
trends in telecommunications continued7
Trends in Telecommunications (continued)
  • Technology (continued)
      • Fiber-optic lines & cellular, PCS, satellite & other wireless technologies
        • Faster transmission speeds
trends in telecommunications continued8
Trends in Telecommunications (continued)
  • Business applications
    • Dramatic increase in the number of feasible telecommunication applications.
    • Cut costs, reduce lead times, shorten response times, support e-commerce, improve collaboration, share resources, lock in customers & suppliers, & develop new products & services
the internet
The Internet
  • A network of networks
  • Popular uses
    • E-mail
    • Instant messaging
    • Browsing the World Wide Web
    • Newsgroups and chat rooms
the internet continued
The Internet (continued)
  • The business value of the Internet
intranets
Intranets
  • Within an organization
  • Uses Internet technologies
  • Business value of Intranets
    • Used for information sharing, communication, collaboration, & support of business processes.
    • Web publishing
      • Comparatively easy, attractive, & lower cost alternative for publishing & accessing multimedia business information
websphere ctd
WebSphere (ctd)
  • WebSphere Portal leverages the strengths of IBM middleware,including:
    • Lotusfor advanced collaboration and expertise location
    • Tivoli for role-based access to business systems
    • IBM Data Management tools for fast data access (DB2)
    • Commerce for business-to-business (B2B)and business-to-consumer (B2C)
    • IBM wireless and voice technologies
    • IBM WebSphere Application Server as the foundation
extranets
Extranets
  • Network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the firm’s intranet with the intranets of customers, suppliers, or other business partners
    • Consultants, subcontractors, business prospects, & others
extranets continued
Extranets (continued)
  • Business value
    • Improve communication with customers and business partners
    • Gain competitive advantage in
      • Product development
      • Cost savings
      • Marketing
      • Distribution
      • Leveraging their partnerships
section ii

Section II

Telecommunications Network Alternatives

a telecommunications network model continued
A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)
  • Consists of five basic components
    • Terminals
      • Any input/output device that uses telecommunication networks to transmit or receive data
    • Telecommunication processors
      • Support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers
a telecommunications network model continued22
A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)
  • Telecommunications channels
    • The medium over which data are transmitted and received
  • Computers
    • Interconnected by telecommunications networks
  • Telecommunications control software
    • Control telecommunications activities & manage the functions of telecommunications networks
types of telecommunications networks
Types of Telecommunications Networks
  • Wide Area Networks (WAN)
    • Cover a large geographic area.
  • Local Area Networks (LAN)
    • Connect computers & other information processing devices within a limited physical area.
    • Connected via ordinary telephone wiring, coaxial cable, or wireless radio & infrared systems
types of telecommunications networks continued
Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)
  • Virtual Private Networks
    • A secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network, but relies on fire walls and other security features
types of telecommunications networks continued26
Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)
  • Client/Server Networks
    • Clients – end user PCs or NCs
    • Server – helps with application processing and also manages the network
types of telecommunications networks continued28
Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)
  • Network computing
    • “the network is the computer”
      • Thin clients process small application programs called “applets.”
a telecommunications network model continued29
A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
    • Two major models
      • Central server architecture
      • Pure peer-to-peer
telecommunications media
Telecommunications Media
  • Twisted-pair wire
  • Coaxial cable
    • Minimizes interference and distortion
    • Allows high-speed data transmission
  • Fiber optics
    • Glass fiber that conducts pulses of light generated by lasers
    • Size and weight reduction
    • Increased speed and carrying capacity
wireless technologies
Wireless Technologies
  • Terrestrial Microwave
    • Line-of-sight path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart.
  • Communications Satellites
    • Geosynchronous orbits
    • Serve as relay stations for communications signals transmitted from earth stations
wireless technologies continued
Wireless Technologies (continued)
  • Cellular & PCS Systems
    • Each cell is typically from one to several square miles in area.
    • Each cell has its own low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna.
    • Computers & other communications processors coordinate & control the transmissions to/from mobile users as they move from one cell to another
m commerce
M-commerce
  • Transactions and non-transaction functions over wireless networks
  • Growth due to:
    • Newer and smaller technologies
    • More mobile populations
    • Deregulation of telecommunication markets
    • Less costly infrastructure than wired alternative
  • Slower to grow in US than Europe and Asia
m commerce34

pizza

M-commerce
  • Issues
    • Relatively slow transmission speeds
    • Screen size
    • Battery technology
  • PDA and smart phone
cellular networks
Cellular Networks
  • Overlapping towers
  • Signal picked up by closest tower and transferred on
  • AMPS standard (TACS in EUROPE)
  • PCS and various alternative standards
wireless application protocol
Wireless Application Protocol
  • WAP forum
  • WAP proxy server
  • Issues in Web service
    • Requires scaled down sites
    • Low transmission speed
    • Non-compatible WAP versions
    • Lack of good WAP-enabled sites
i mode
I-mode
  • Wireless Internet service
  • 60% of Japanese market
  • Why so popular?
    • Lack of easy and based Internet access in Japan
    • Lower PC penetration in Japan
    • Extensive wireless coverage
    • Returns money to website providers
personal area networks
Personal Area Networks
  • Connection of computer to peripherals or other computers
  • Connect PDA and desktop computer
  • Several connection methods:
    • Bluetooth(radio frequency – up to 300 feet)
    • IrDA (Infrared)(cheap)
    • Wireless LAN 802.11b – wireless Ethernet(more reliable)
new generations of wireless networks
New Generations of Wireless Networks
  • 3G network
    • Broadband up to 2 Mbps
    • Packet switched
    • Combine prior incompatible system(agreement on standards)
    • Virtual home environment
telecommunications processors
Telecommunications Processors
  • Modems (modulation/demodulation)
    • Changes signals from analog to digital and back to analog
  • Multiplexers
    • Allows a single communication channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals
telecommunications processors continued
Telecommunications Processors (continued)
  • Internetwork Processors
    • Switches
      • Makes connections between telecomm circuits so a message can reach its intended destination
    • Router
      • Interconnects networks based on different rules or protocols
telecommunications processors continued42
Telecommunications Processors (continued)
  • Hub
    • Port switching communications processor
  • Gateway
    • A processor that interconnects networks that use different communications architecture
telecommunications software
Telecommunications Software
  • Provides a variety of communications support services including connecting & disconnecting communications links & establishing communications parameters such as transmission speed, mode, and direction.
telecommunications software continued
Telecommunications Software (continued)
  • Network Management
    • Traffic management
    • Security
    • Network monitoring
    • Capacity planning
network topologies
Network Topologies
  • Star
    • Ties end user computers to a central computer
    • Considered the least reliable
  • Ring (sometimes called Token Ring)
    • Ties local computer processors together in a ring on a more equal basis.
    • Considered more reliable & less costly
network topologies continued
Network Topologies (continued)
  • Bus
    • Local processors share the same bus, or communications channel
    • Tree is a variation which ties several bus networks together
network architectures protocols
Network Architectures & Protocols
  • Protocols
    • A standard set of rules & procedures for the control of communications in a network
    • Standards for the physical characteristics of cables and connectors
  • Network Architecture
    • Goal is to promote an open, simple, flexible, efficient telecommunications environment
network architectures and protocols continued
Network Architectures and Protocols (continued)
  • OSI Model
  • TCP/IP
    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
      • Used by the Internet and all intranets and extranets
bandwidth alternatives
Bandwidth Alternatives
  • Bandwidth is the frequency range of a telecommunications network
  • Determines the channel’s maximum transmission rate
  • Measured in bits per second (bps) or baud
  • Narrow-band
    • Low-speed transmission
  • Broadband
    • High-speed transmission
switched networks
Switched Networks
  • Packet switched and circuit switched
  • Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
  • Frame Relay
    • Committed information rate
    • Data bursts
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
    • Various speeds and scalability
  • The Internet