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Properties of Matter. All Pure Matter has Physical Characteristics. Can observe without the substance changing into a new substance Examples: boiling point, freezing/melting point, hardness, color, texture, & state at room temperature (gas, liquid or solid), density, solubility

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all pure matter has physical characteristics
All Pure Matter has Physical Characteristics
  • Can observe without the substance changing into a new substance
  • Examples: boiling point, freezing/melting point, hardness, color, texture, & state at room temperature (gas, liquid or solid), density, solubility
  • If a metal: luster, malleability, conductivity of electricity and heat, attraction to magnet

If matter undergoes a physical change, then it is the same substance with the same physical and chemical properties before and after the change


Example: an ice cubemelts into liquid water and then can be boiled to make steam.

  • Each state has the same chemical formula (H2O), boiling and freezing/melting points, clear color, and is the universal solvent.
all pure matter has chemical characteristics
All Pure Matter has Chemical Characteristics
  • Can’t be observed just by looking at it
  • Describes a substance’s ability to turn into a new substance
  • To observe the property, the substance MUST react with another and form other pure substance(s), SO there must be a chemical reaction
  • Examples: flammability, reactivity with other elements and compounds (in the air iron forms rust, copper turns green, silver tarnishes)

If matter undergoes a chemical reaction, a new substance with its own physical & chemical properties is produced


Sodium (Na) - soft, silvery metal that explodes in water

  • Chlorine (Cl) - a poisonous yellow-green gas.
chemical reaction sodium chloride nacl
Chemical Reaction: sodium chloride (NaCl)
  • Na + Cl NaCl (table salt)
  • a white solid
  • dissolves in water without exploding
  • safe to eat
  • melting point of 801°C

(Na 97.85°C)

  • boiling point of 1413°C

(Cl -34.6°C).

compounds vs mixtures
Compounds vs. Mixtures
  • Molecules are substances with 2 or more atoms chemically combined.
  • A compound is a molecule made up of atoms from 2 or more elements that reacted chemically and has unique chemical properties of its own. (C6H12O6 or NH3)
  • All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds (some are elements like H2 or Cl2).
  • A mixture is made of 2 or more substances that do no react chemically, and retain their chemical properties (examples: salad, lemonade).
chemical properties of acids
Chemical Properties of Acids
  • Tastes sour (if in food)
  • Reacts with metals

and carbonates

  • Turns litmuspaper red
  • pH < 7
  • Separate into H+ and

(-) ions in water

never taste a chemical in a lab
Never Taste a Chemical in a Lab
  • Acids in foods taste sour or tart: citrus fruits, tomatoes, apples, vinegar
acids react with metals carbonates
Acids React with Metals & Carbonates
  • Acids corrode metals
  • H+ react with the metal
  • Chemical reaction producing H2 – gas
  • Acids react with carbonates to produce CO2 (this is what happens in the reaction of baking soda and vinegar)
strong acid versus weak acid
Strong Acid versus Weak Acid

A strong acid releases more H+ into solution. A weak acid only partially dissolves in water

chemical properties of bases
Chemical Properties of Bases

Sodium Hydroxide - NaOHPotassium Hydroxide - KOHAmmonium Hydroxide - NH4OHCalcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH)2Magnesium Hydroxide - Mg(OH)2Barium Hydroxide - Ba(OH)2Aluminum Hydroxide - Al(OH)3

  • Tastes bitter (if in food)
  • Feels slippery
  • Turns litmuspaper blue
  • pH > 7 (also called alkaline)
  • Causes OH- and

(+) ions in water


Bases in food taste bitter: radish, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, turnip, olives, coffee, unsweetened cocoa, quinine, Tums®

pH = 7
  • A substance with a pH of 7 is neutral
  • Closer to 7 = weak acids or bases
  • Closer to 0 – stronger acid (more acidic)
  • Closer to 14 = stronger base (more alkaline)
what happens if an acid base mix
What Happens If An Acid & Base Mix?
  • The reaction between an acid and a base is called a Neutralization or oxidation-reduction reaction (redox)
  • Resulting substance has a pH closer to neutral (less acidic, less basic than the original substances)
  • acid + base = a salt + water
  • How close to pH 7 depends on the concentrations and amounts of the originals