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Properties of Matter. Chapter 2 & 8. “Properties of Matter” . Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is made of atoms which are the smallest particles that have the properties of an element. “Solutions and Other Mixtures” .

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properties of matter1
“Properties of Matter”
  • Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
    • Matter is made of atoms which are the smallest particles that have the properties of an element.
solutions and other mixtures
“Solutions and Other Mixtures”
  • Pure substances are any matter that has a fixed composition and definite properties.
    • Cannot be broken down by physical changes.
    • Made of:
      • Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
      • Compounds are substances made of atoms of more than one element bound together.
      • Molecules are the smallest unit of a substance that exhibits all of the characteristics of that substance.
solutions and other mixtures1
“Solutions and Other Mixtures”
  • A mixture is a combination of one or more pure substances.
    • Can be broken down by physical changes.
    • While compounds are different from the elements that make it, mixtures may have some physical and chemical properties similar to the pure substances.

+

+

=

sour

sweet

wet

sour, sweet & wet

heterogeneous mixture
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures that are not uniformly mixed.
heterogeneous mixture1
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures that look uniform when you shake them, but will separate out if you let them set.
heterogeneous mixture2
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Liquid mixtures that are heterogeneous are called immiscible. This means that the two or more liquids in the mixture do not mix into each other.
heterogeneous mixture3
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Colloids are heterogeneous mixtures of very tiny particles of pure substances that are dispersed in another substance but do not settle out.
heterogeneous mixture4
Heterogeneous Mixture
  • Emulsions are any mixture of immiscible liquids in which the liquids are spread throughout one another.
  • The immiscible liquids stay mixed because of an emulsifier.
homogeneous mixture
Homogeneous Mixture
  • Homogeneous mixtures are uniformly mixed.
homogeneous mixture1
Homogeneous Mixture
  • Liquid mixtures that are homogeneous are called miscible. This means that the two or more liquids in the mixture are able to dissolve into each other in various proportions.
homogeneous mixture2
Homogeneous Mixture
  • Miscible solutions can be separated using distillation.
    • Distillation takes advantage of different boiling points.
    • Distillation works by boiling off and condensing the substance with the lowest boiling point.
homogeneous mixture3
Homogeneous Mixture

solvent

  • Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances uniformly spread throughout a single phase.
    • A solution has 2 parts:
      • Solvent: dissolves a substance.
      • Solute: is dissolved.

solute

homogeneous mixture4
Homogeneous Mixture
  • An alloy is a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals.

Brass

Bronze

dissolving and solubility
“Dissolving and Solubility”
  • Solubility is the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure.
dissolving and solubility1
“Dissolving and Solubility”
  • Concentration is the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore.
    • A concentrated solution will have a large quantity of dissolved solute.
    • A dilute solution will have a small quantity of solute dissolved in a large volume of solvent.
    • Saturated solutions are solutions that cannot dissolve any more solute at the given conditions.
    • Before this solutions are considered unsaturated.
    • Super saturated solutions occur when you heat a solvent up at a very high temperature and dissolve solute to saturation. When it cools it holds more solute than normally possible.
dissolving and solubility2
“Dissolving and Solubility”
  • “Like only dissolves like.”
  • Polar substances are only soluble in polar substances.
  • Nonpolar substances are only soluble in nonpolar substances.
  • Polar substances like water will not mix with neutral things like oil. Oil is considered nonpolar.
dissolving and solubility3
“Dissolving and Solubility”
  • Factors that can increase the rate of solubility:
    • Substances with a larger surface area dissolve faster.
      • Example: sugar granules dissolve faster than sugar cubes.
    • Stirring a solution will also make it dissolve faster.
    • Heating a substance adds more energy to its molecules making them move faster in liquid. This causes a more rapid transfer of energy from a solvent to a solute.
      • Example: dissolving sugar into tea.
dissolving and solubility4
“Dissolving and Solubility”
  • We can visually interpret different concentrations of soluble substances using what is called a solubility curve.
    • These curves show how the amount of dissolved solute changes with temperature.
acids bases and ph
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Acidsare a substance that donates hydrogen ions, H+, to form hydronium ions, H3O+, when dissolved in water.
    • Examples: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid
acids bases and ph1
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Properties of an acids:
    • Taste sour.
    • Turn blue litmus paper red.
    • Destroy the chemical properties of bases (neutralization).
    • Conduct an electric current.
    • Produce hydrogen gas when they come in contact with an active metal.
acids bases and ph2
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Basesare substances that either contains hydroxide ions, OH-, or reacts with water to form hydroxide ions.
    • Examples: Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and ammonia
acids bases and ph3
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Properties of a base:
    • Taste bitter.
    • Turn red litmus paper blue.
    • Destroy the chemical properties of acids (neutralization).
    • Conduct electric current.
    • Feel slippery.
acids bases and ph4
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Strong acids and bases fully ionize in water, meaning they form as many hydronium or hydroxide ions as they possibly can.
  • Weak acids and bases do not fully ionize. This means there are less ions created in the water.
acids bases and ph5
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Strong acids and bases have more dissolved charged ions in a solution and therefore have a higher conductivity.
    • Conductivity is the ability to conduct electricity.
acids bases and ph6
Acids, Bases and PH
  • pHis a measure of the hydronium ion concentration in a solution.
    • The pH scale typically ranges from 0-14.
      • Neutral solutions have a pH of 7.
      • Below 7 is acidic.
      • Above 7 is basic (also called alkaline).
acids bases and ph7
Acids, Bases and PH
  • Indicators are compounds that can reversibly change color in a solution depending on the concentration of H3O+ ions.

Litmus Paper

Blue and Red Litmus Paper

Natural (Cabbage Juice)

reactions of acids and bases
Reactions of Acids and Bases
  • A neutralization reaction is a reaction in which hydronium ions from an acid and hydroxide ions from a base react to produce a solution that is more neutral than either of the reactants.
    • Products: water and a salt
reactions of acids and bases1
Reactions of Acids and Bases
  • Asalt is an ionic compound of cations bonded to anions, other than oxide or hydroxide anions.
acids and bases in the home
Acids and Bases in the Home
  • Acids and bases for cleaning.
    • Soap is a base that allows us to wash off oil with water.
      • A droplet of oil can stay suspended in water because the polar ends of the soap dissolve in water and the nonpolar ends dissolve in oil.
acids and bases in the home1
Acids and Bases in the Home
  • Detergentsare bases that are used instead of soaps for clothing and dishes because when used with “hard” water (water containing dissolved salts) detergents do not create an insoluble soap scum.
acids and bases in the home2
Acids and Bases in the Home
  • Ammonia solutions are bases made by dissolving ammonia gas through water. The hydroxide ions in this solution interact with greasy dirt to form an emulsion of with water.
acids and bases in the home3
Acids and Bases in the Home
  • A disinfectant is a substance that kills harmful bacteria and viruses.
    • Bleach is base that is a disinfectant.
acids and bases in the home4
Acids and Bases in the Home
  • Acids and bases are used in healthcare.
    • Acids: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
    • Bases: sodium hydrogen carbonate and magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) are both antacids.
acids and bases in the home5
Acids and Bases in the Home
  • Acids and bases are used in the kitchen.
    • Acids: citric acid (prevents browning in apples), marinades (vinegar and wine tenderize meat), lactic acid (changes milk to yogurt).
    • Bases: sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda), baking powder, potassium hydroxide (lye, used as a drain cleaner).