Modern Era And Brave New world Alexi Anderson, KaylinKozesky, Jason Poruznik, Bekah Schultz
Twentieth Century/ aka Modern Era
Siegfried Sasson • Background: • Born into a high level English society class • Lived the life of a country gentleman until WWI started • He was a patriot and an idealist but after 2yrs his view were stark and savage depicting trench warfare. • Diagnosed with shellshock and was put in a hospital where he met Wilfred Owen • Works: • - Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man (1928) • - The Rear-Guard (1917) (1886-1967)
Wilfred Owen • Background: • Was interested in experimental techniques and mastered the half rhyme • His model was John Keats and he studied the French poets • His poetry progress was made in the war trenches and military hospitals • Work: • Dulce et Decorum Est (1893-1918)
Graham Greene • Background: • Wrote serious idealistic novels dealing with moral dilemmas and his light entertainments and thrillers • His intention was to always tell the truth • His Catholic faith later in life was an important factor to his writing • Works: • -The Man Within (1929) - his first novel • Stamboul Train (1932) • -Brighton Rock (1938) • -The Power and the Glory (1940) • -The Destroyers (1904-1991)
Ted Hughes • Background: • Used violent nature imagery to symbolize the human condition • Was married to Sylvia Plath • Was accused of being responsible for her death • To him, nature represented the darkest impulses of the human heart • Work: • -Hawk Roosting (1930-1998)
James Joyce • Background: • Ulysses was originally thought too scandalous to be printed • Influenced modern writers by portraying the flow of thought • Used stream of consciousness- attempt to portray the thinking mind directly • Works: • - Ulysses (1922) • - Araby (1882-1941)
D.H. Lawrence • Background: • Began publishing poems when he was a teacher • Traveled to Italy and while there he began to see industrialized England as corrosive and oppressive • Believed in “blood knowledge”- balancing one’s animal sense with one’s intellect • Works: • The Rocking-Horse Winner (1885-1930)
Dylan Thomas • Background: • Wrote most of his most famous works before he was 20 • As a child he was continually torn between a wish to live up to the expectations of his father and the impulse to please his mother • His poems are a mix of intricate complication and preacher-like eloquence • Works: • - “Fern Hill” • - “In my craft or sullen art” • “Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night” (1914-1953)
Aldous Huxley • Background: • Works: • - Brave New World (1931) (1894-1963)
“The Rear-Guard” • -Siegfried Sassoon • Summary: • This poem tells or the horrors of a man • stumbling through trenches during WWI. He finds • himself upon the corpse of a soldier.
“The Rear-Guard” • -Siegfried Sassoon Literary Terms: Trench Poet- Poets who wrote “war poetry” but hoped their work would survive and continue to serve as a warning. (EX: Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen) Oxymoron- a figure of speech that combines apparently contradictory ideas.
“The Rear-Guard” • -Siegfried Sassoon • Analysis: • Imagery: helps the audience see the action and feel the emotions better in the poem. • Irony: Tell the dead soldier to guide him through the tunnel • Oxymoron: rosy gloom
“Dulce et Decorum” • -Wilfred Owen • Summary: • This poem is about the consequences that happen to a soldier who does not get his mask on promptly.
“Dulce et Decorum” • -Wilfred Owen Literary Terms: Hyperbole – a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or create a comic effect. Simile- A figure of speech that makes a comparison between between two seemingly unlike things by using a connective world such as like, as, than, or resembles. Tone- The attitude a writer takes toward a reader, a subject, or a character.
“Dulce et Decorum” • -Wilfred Owen • Analysis: • Oxymoron: • Ecstasy of fumbling • Desperate glory • Simile: • -flound’ring like a man in fire or lime • -obscene as cancer • -bitter as the end of vile • Tone: • -disgusted • Hyperbole: • “His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin; • If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood • Come gargling fro the froth-corrupted lungs, • Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud • Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,-” (lns20-24).
“The Destructors” • -Graham Greene • Summary: • This story is about a gang of young boys who are led by a new leader named T. Their old leader, Blackie suggests they sneak free bus rides, but T. wants to destroy Mr. Thomas' house. The only house that survived the bombing from World War II.
“The Destructors” • -Graham Greene • Literary Terms: • Irony– a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality- • between what is said and what is really meant • between what is expected and what really happens • between what appears to be true and what really is true
“The Destructors” • -Graham Greene • Analysis: • Irony: • -The house that didn’t get destroyed by bombs got • destroyed by children -T.'s father is an architect and T. ends up destroying a • house • -T. is supposed to lead to build, but leads to • destroy • -The horoscope warned Mr. Thomas, "Danger of • serious crash" and his house ends up being • destroyed • Theme: • -War destroys innocence.
“Hawk Roosting” • -Ted Hughes • Summary: • This poem is about a hawk seeking after its prey and its' thoughts during the process
“Hawk Roosting” • -Ted Hughes Literary Terms: Personification- giving a creature or object characteristics akin to human consciousness, desire, and will.
“Hawk Roosting” • -Ted Hughes • Analysis: • Personification: • The hawk is introspective and reflective. The hawk knows what is his and no one can deny him his right to his prey.
“Chaucer” • -Ted Hughes • Summary: • This poem is about Sylvia Plath reciting Chaucer in a field.
“Chaucer” • -Ted Hughes • Literary Terms: • Imagery- language that appeals to the sense
“Chaucer” • -Ted Hughes • Analysis: • Imagery: -spring sky, flying laundry, new emerald of the thorns
“Araby” • -James Joyce • Summary: • A boy falls in love with a young neighbor girl. Eventually he speaks to her and finds out she is unable to attend the Araby she wanted to go to. He promises to go to the carnival and get her a gift. Unfortunately he is unable to obtain her a gift and has a treacherous realization.
“Araby” • -James Joyce Literary Terms: Epiphany- a moment of sudden insight or revelation experienced by a character
“Araby” • -James Joyce • Analysis: • Irony: -He went on a quest to get her a gift and doesn't get it - His love for the girl is overblown and in the end he gets nothing in return • Epiphany: • -He realizes his "love" was for nothing • “I saw myself as a creature driven and • derided by vanity: and my eyes burned • with anguish and anger” (Probst ,990).
“The Rocking-Horse Winner” • -D.H. Lawrence • Summary: • A young English woman marries a man with no "luck". She is constantly haunted by her failures and her children notice it. Paul, her son wants to help his mother obtain luck. His childhood rocking horse gives Paul knowledge of horses that will win the Derby. In the end, Paul tries to obtain luck and dies in the process.
“The Rocking-Horse Winner” • -D.H. Lawrence Literary Terms: Theme – the central idea or insight of a work of literature
“The Rocking-Horse Winner” • -D.H. Lawrence • Literary Terms: • Theme: • - Materialism leads to the exclusion of more important things such as love.
“Fern Hill” • -Dylan Thomas • Summary: • This poem is a memory of Dylan Thomas' childhood and his enchanted life in the Welsh countryside.
“Fern Hill” • -Dylan Thomas Literary Terms: Paradox- An apparent contradiction that is actually true. Lyric Poetry- Poetry that focuses on expressing emotions or thoughts, rather than on telling a story.
“Fern Hill” • -Dylan Thomas • Analysis: • Personification: - Time is personified when it lets him hail and climb and play and be • Paradox: - He's saying that the lovers are his audience and who he writes poetry for but, they don't directly support him. • Imagery: -wanderer white with the dew - spellbound horses walking warm out of the whinnying green stable • Lyric poem: - Focuses on his thoughts and emotions about his memories of his childhood.
“In My Craft or Sullen Art” • -Dylan Thomas • Summary:
“In My Craft or Sullen Art” • -Dylan Thomas Literary Terms: Theme-
“In My Craft or Sullen Art” • -Dylan Thomas • Analysis: • Theme: • -
“Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” • Summary: • This poem is an elegy telling a dying man not to surrender to death, but to challenge it. • -Dylan Thomas
“Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” Literary Terms: Elegy- a poem that mourns death of a person or laments something lost. • -Dylan Thomas
“Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” • Analysis: • Metaphors: - good night being compared to death - light compared to life • -Dylan Thomas
Brave New World • -Aldous Huxley • Summary (Part 1): • Brave New World begins in the year 2495 in the central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre where the Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning, Thomas, is explaining the decanting process and how people are produced in their society. The society creates these children and then conditions them to seek out sex and entertainment, but not to like nature or read books. Children are also taught to stay within their caste system. The caste system (in descending order) consists of the Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons. This society also worships their god, Ford and is controlled emotionally by the drug named Soma.
Brave New World • -Aldous Huxley • Summary (Part 2): • As the plot moves on, it focuses on the flaws of the “utopian” society. Bernard Marx is scrutinized for being shorter than the average alpha which begins his questioning about the society. While his friend, Helmholtz Watson feels he should show emotion in his writing which is considered blasphemy in the new society. Also, Lenina is participating in a monogamous relationship. When Lenina and Bernard go on a date they both talk about how they would like to go to the reservation and see the savages. When they do go there they realize a boy named John is the son of the D.H.C. John is taken to the New Society and taught their ways. The story continues with his struggle to figure out where he fits in; in the Reservation or the New Society. In the end, the burdens are too much and he ends his life.
Brave New World • -Aldous Huxley • Analysis: • Utopian society and Dystopian society • The novel is a satirical novel. Showing how horrible a future could be with complete government control. • Advancement of technology can lead to the destruction of a society. • Henry Ford- Allusion • Symbols: • Soma- government’s control over emotions • Malthusian belt- Promiscuity and consumerism • John’s Death- compass; cant find direction in life, doesn’t belong anywhere • Heroes: • Bernard Marx- anti-hero • John the Savage- Epic hero
Elements of a Modern ShortStory • Edgar Allan Poe created the most influential theoretical foundations for the short story. • -read in one sitting= more effective and unified • -people in extreme states both physically or emotionally
Elements of a Modern ShortStory Literary Terms (1): Closure- the feeling that one has reached a satisfactory conclusion Trick ending- surprising twist ending Realism- a literary movement that developed in the latter part of the 19th century; portrayed life as it really was and not what they wished or feared it to be A realist painting- depicting apples as they are not as they wished or feared
Elements of a Modern ShortStory Literary Terms (2): Slice of life- snapshots of a variety of places and social class Psychological realism- character’s perceptions and motivations in a story Dramatic irony- readers knowing more than the character in a story
Elements of a Modern ShortStory • 3 Concepts: • It is more likely to concerned with nuances of character than with construction of fast paced plot • It is more apt to imply important facts and psychological truths than to state directly • It is more to apt to move toward a revelation of truth than to an effect