Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA - 406 • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood
REFLECTION The main contributors of Power & Politics School are:- • Harold Laswell • Robert Dhal • Antony Jay (reintroduced Machiavelli’s concept of power)
REFLECTION There are various types of power that managers use in the organization. These are: • Legitimate Power • Reward/Punish Power • Expert Power • Referent Power
REFLECTION Conflict: Conflict as Positive and Negative Indus Valley Civilization • In the sub-continent two civilizations of ancient time i.e. Mohenjodaro and Harrapa were very developed cities between 3250- 2750 BC.
History of Public Administration • The book by Kautilya is one of the oldest books on Public Administration written during Maurya period. • This book was written for the officials who were responsible for running the government, so that they understand their duties and responsibilities.
History of Public Administration Moghul Period • Moghul Administrative System has clear imprints on the present day public management in Pakistan. • Moghul period lasted over two centuries during which many rulers including Sher Shah Suri and Akber. • Though Suri was not Moghul ruler but his administrative system was adopted by succeeding rulers. • Suri, developed a centralized system of administration, divided the empire into 47 divisions, with several sub-divisions under each division. • He constructed the present Grand Trunk (GT) road, which runs from Peshawar to Calcutta.
History of Public Administration Moghul Period • He established gardens and hospitals and promoted public welfare. • He was guided by the principle that ‘no one should be deprived of state benefaction and no one should have superfluity of the same’. • Many Moghul Rulers followed Sher Shah Suri. But Akber's period is longest and many developments took place. • Akber ruled the sub-continent for nearly 50 years. He developed the administrative system mainly borrowed from Sher Shah Suri.
History of Public Administration Moghul Period • The empire was divided into, provinces, divisions, districts and villages. • These terms are used even now. • Village was the lowest unit and it was governed by headman, accountant and watchman. • The British did not change this system and existed up to the partition of sub-continent and later.
History of Public Administration Moghul Period • During the time of Akbar human resource management was done. • Akber further improved the system: • Revenue collection system: During Akber period revenue collection system was improved. • It was based on survey and classification of soil. The land was classified as agriculture and non-agriculture. • State tax was then fixed and charged according to the type of soil.
History of Public Administration Moghul Period • Judicial system: Judicial Officers were appointed at the district, town and village levels. • Law enforcement: Kotwal (chief police officer), with only civil authority was appointed in important towns. • In rural areas faujdar (army chief) was appointed to control crime.
History of Public Administration Moghul Period • After Akber, for over hundred years no real administrative system could develop, mainly because the disarray of the empire began with Jahangir. • Jahangir first allowed the East India Company to set up a factory in 1642 at Balasore for medical service provided by the Surgeon of the company on the ship. • The East India Company, which was a trading Company and had its Board of Governors, was granted charter on 31 Dec., 1600 to trade freely into and from East Indies, by the British Parliament.
History of Public Administration British Period • The beginning of British Rule in the sub-continent started and the East India Company gradually expanded its operations. • In 1609 - the authority to trade was further extended. • In 1661 - the Company was empowered to declare war on and have peace with any ruler. • The Regulating Act 1773 was passed by British parliament granting the British government powers to regulate the affairs of the Company in India.
History of Public Administration British Period • By this time the British government was not ruling directly India. • All matters and powers were given to the company to rule. • In 1757 the victory at Plassey paved the way for the British rule. • There were countless battles and conflict before the British government’s direct rule which really started after 1857 (war of independence).
Civil Service • Civil service means “public” and public are the citizens of a country. • By this connotation it means that civil servants are a group of people who serve public and in that sense civil service is different from military service. • Words like Public, Civil, and Government are used interchangeably. • Officers and officials working in government organization are all public servants.
Civil Service Recruitment of Public Servants: • The recruitment of civil servants takes place by the following two methods: 1. Public Service Commissions (Federal & Provincial) 2. The autonomous organization recruit people directly (test & interview by the organization)
Civil Service • The structure of Federal and Provincial Government is as under:- Federal GovernmentProvincial Government Ministries Department Division/s Directorate Attached Department Autonomous Bodies Autonomous Bodies Development Authorities Public Enterprises District/Tehsil Office
Civil Service • At the Federal Level, the top organization is ‘Ministry’, for example Ministry of Health and Population. • The Ministry is headed by Minister each ministry may have two or more than two divisions.
Civil Service • The administrative control of the department is with the Division which is controlling it. • Autonomous bodies are much independent because, these have their Board of Governors who makes policy decision for the organization. • In this way these are independent administratively.
Civil Service Functions Performed by the Government: The government performs these functions: • Maintains Peace • Provides Defence • Collects Revenues and • Maintains Currency
Civil Service How Government performs various functions? It performs these functions through its representatives i.e. • Public Servants or Civil Servant who are paid salary from the Government Treasury. • In addition to these traditional functions, modern governments perform many additional functions. These are: - It provides Utilities (electricity, telephone, gas) - It maintain Government Accounts - It maintains Foreign Relations - It maintains Cantonments
Civil Service The functions of today’s government have increased because of following reasons:- • Population has increased manifold and hence the nature of problems • The territory of the government has increased in size • Technological improvement and advancement
Civil Service • Therefore, in order to perform new functions, the governments changed the structure and added more functions. • At the time of independence Pakistan inherited the civil service structure which was laid out by the East India Company and subsequently modified by the British government to its own requirements. • The structure of the services existing in Pre-partition sub-continent was adopted in Pakistan with little modifications. • The following two categories of the services were maintained. 1. All-Pakistan Services 2. Central Services
Civil Service • All Pakistan Services: • It comprised Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) and the Police Service of Pakistan (PSP). • Officers of these services served under central as well as the provincial governments. • Officers when served under the Provincial Government were controlled by Provincial Government concerned but the basic control remained with centre. 2. Central Services: • Like the Central Services before partition, the Central Services in Pakistan were controlled by Central government.
Thank you for your kind attention! • FACILITATOR • Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood