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Basic Chemistry/Chapter 2. Joe Pistack MS/ED. Matter. Matter- anything that occupies space and has weight. Ex. Chairs, desks, books. Matter exists in three states: Solid Liquid Gas. Solid. Solid -has a definite shape and Volume. Ex. Skin Bones teeth. Liquid.

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basic chemistry chapter 2

Basic Chemistry/Chapter 2

Joe Pistack MS/ED

matter
Matter
  • Matter-anything that occupies space and has weight.
  • Ex. Chairs, desks, books.
  • Matter exists in three states:
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
solid
Solid

Solid-has a definite shape and

Volume.

Ex.

  • Skin
  • Bones
  • teeth
liquid
Liquid
  • Liquid-matter takes on the shape of the container that it is in.

Ex.

  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Digestive juices
slide5
Gas
  • Gas-has no definite shape or volume. It too like a liquid, takes the shape of it container

Ex.

  • the air we breath.
changes in matter
Changes in Matter
  • Matter can undergo two types of changes:
  • (1) physical
  • (2)chemical
  • Physical change-the matter does not chemically change, only the physical appearance changes.
  • Ex. When wood is chopped from a log into smaller pieces.
changes in matter1
Changes in Matter
  • Chemical change-occurs when the chemical composition of the matter is changed.
  • Ex. When wood is burned, wood changes to ashes.
  • The human body undergoes many physical and chemical changes.
  • Ex. Chewing is a physical change, breaks food into smaller pieces and digestion is a chemical change, it changes the food into simpler substances.
elements
Elements
  • Element-fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions.
  • All matter living or dead is composed of elements.
  • Four elements make up 96% of the body:
  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen
elements1
Elements
  • Trace elements-present in small amounts, but are essential for life.
  • Atom-smallest unit of an element with that element’s chemical characteristics. All elements are composed of atoms.
  • Atoms are composed of: protons

neutrons

electrons

trace elements
Trace Elements
  • Elements that are present in tiny amounts.
  • Essential for life.
  • Ex. Iodine , Chromium

Cobalt , Copper

Florine, Zinc

atomic structure
Atomic Structure
  • Atom-smallest unit of an element with that element’s chemical characteristic
  • Composed of three subatomic particles:
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • electrons
atomic structure1
Atomic Structure
  • Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus.
  • Protons carry a (+) electrical charge.
  • Electrons carry a (-) electrical charge.
  • Neutrons carry no electrical charge.
atomic structure2
Atomic Structure
  • Atom that have an equal number of protons and electrons are electrically neutral, and carry no electrical charge.
  • The number of protons and electrons in an atom is what makes atoms different.
atomic structure3
Atomic Structure

Two important characteristics of atoms:

(1) Atomic number-the number of protons in the nucleus.

(2) Atomic weight-determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

atomic structure4
Atomic Structure
  • Isotope-different form of the same atom.
  • Isotopes are unstable, nuclei break down or decay which gives off particles as energy waves.
  • Unstable nuclei become more stable. Unstable isotopes are called radioisotopes.
radioactivity
Radioactivity
  • Radioactivity-the process of spontaneous breakdown.
  • Radioisotopes are damaging to tissue and are used clinically to destroy cells.
  • Ex. Radioactive iodine is used to destroy excess thyroid tissue. Certain radioisotopes are used to destroy cancer cells.
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Chemical bond-the attraction between the atoms.
  • Three types of chemical bonds:
  • (1) ionic bonds
  • (2) covalent bonds
  • (3) hydrogen bonds
chemical bonds1
Chemical Bonds
  • Ionic bonds-caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms.
  • Covalent bonds-involves the sharing of electrons by the outer shells of the atoms.
  • Hydrogen bonds- is not caused by either the transfer or the sharing of electrons of the outer shells of atoms.
slide19
Ions
  • Ions-elements that carry an electrical charge.
  • Cation-positively charged ion.
  • Anion-negatively charged ion.
  • Ions are formed when electrons in the outer shell are either gained or lost.
electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Electrolyte- substance that forms ions when it is dissolved in water.
  • Ionization-the process where an electrolyte splits, or breaks apart in solution. (dissociates)
electrolytes1
Electrolytes
  • One of the most important clinical tools in assessing a patient.
  • Help the physician to make a diagnosis.
  • May be life threatening if too high or too low.
  • Also called “lytes”.
common cations
Common Cations

Name Symbol

Sodium Na+

Calcium Ca2+

Iron Fe2+

Hydrogen H+

Potassium K+

Ammonium NH4

Function

Fluid balance, nerve-muscle

function.

Bones, teeth, blood clotting,

muscle contraction.

Oxygen transport, component of

hemoglobin.

Acid-base balance.

Nerve and muscle function, chief

Intracellular cation.

Acid-base regulation.

common anions
Common Anions

Name Symbol

Chloride Cl-

Bicarbonate HCO3-

Phosphate PO3/4

Function

Primary extracellular anion.

Acid-base regulation.

Bones and teeth, component of

ATP, (energy).

molecules
Molecules
  • Molecule-formed when two or more atoms bond together.
  • Two identical atoms may bond, or atoms from two different elements may combine.
  • Ex. When one atom of oxygen bonds with another atom of oxygen to form a molecule of oxygen, this is designated O2.
molecules1
Molecules
  • Ex. of atoms of two different elements combining:
  • Two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen to form a molecule of water (H2O).
compound
Compound
  • Compound-a substance that contains molecules formed by two or more different atoms.
  • Ex. If two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen, water is formed, (H2O).
  • Water is considered both a molecule and a compound.
water1
Water
  • The most abundant compound in the body.
  • Constitutes approximately 2/3 of an adults body weight.
  • Essential for life.
  • Can only survive a few days without water.
compounds
Compounds
  • Carbon Dioxide-compound consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms (C02).
  • CO2 is made when food is chemically broken down for energy.
  • CO2 is a waste product so it must be eliminated from the body.
water2
Water
  • Important facts about water:
  • Universal solvent-most substances dissolve in water.
  • Temperature regulator-has the ability to absorb large amounts of heat. Plays a role in temperature regulation.
  • Lubricant-major component of mucous and lubricating fluids.
  • Cushion- helps absorbs impacts throughout the body and within joints
molecules2
Molecules
  • Oxygen-(O2)
  • A molecule composed of two oxygen atoms.
  • Exists as a gas.
  • Air we breath contains 21% oxygen.
  • Oxygen is essential for life.
  • Oxygen gives us energy.
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical reaction-process whereby atoms of molecules or compounds interact to form new chemical combinations.
  • The rate of the chemical reaction or how fast they occur is important.
  • If the rate of the reaction needs to be increased, a chemical substance called a catalyst is used.
acids and bases
Acids And Bases
  • A normally functioning body requires a balance between acids and bases.
  • Acid-base balance is important because the chemical reactions in the body occur when these substances are in balance.
  • Imbalances of acids and bases cause life-threatening clinical problems.
acids
Acids
  • Acidic foods that we eat generally have a sour taste.
  • Grapefruit juice, orange juice, lemons, and vinegar are examples of acids.
  • Very strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) can cause burns and damage tissue.
acids1
Acids
  • Acid-an electrolyte that dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an ion.
  • Strong acid-dissociates completely into H+ and an ion.
  • Weak acid-does not dissociate completely.
bases
Bases
  • Base-has a bitter taste and is slippery like soap.
  • Bases usually contain the hydroxyl ion (OH-).
  • When an acid mixes with a base, the H+ of the acid combines with the OH- of the base to form water. This neutralizes the acid.
the ph scale
The pH Scale
  • pH-unit of measurement that indicates how many H+ are in a solution.
  • The pH Scale ranges from 0 to 14.
  • Midpoint of the scale is 7, this is the point where the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in pure water is equal to the number of hydroxyl ions (OH-).
the ph scale1
The pH Scale
  • A pH that measures less than 7 on the scale indicates that the solution has more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxyl ions(OH-). The solution is said to be acidic.
  • A solution that measures more than 7 indicates fewer hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxyl ions (OH-) is said to be basic or alkaline.
the ph scale3
The pH Scale
  • The pH scale measures the degree of acidity (acid) or alkalinity (base).
  • Normal pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45 and is slightly alkaline.
  • When pH falls below 7.35 the patient is said to be acidotic. When pH rises above 7.45, the patient is said to be alkalotic.
the ph scale4
The pH Scale
  • The body needs to remain in a normal alkaline state to function normally, during periods of illness the patient’s blood pH will be monitored.
  • Blood pH is regulated by three mechanisms:

(1) buffers

(2) lungs

(3) kidneys

the ph scale5
The pH Scale
  • Patient’s with ulcers often have excess stomach acid.
  • Stomach acid can be neutralized with a drug that contains a base.
  • These types of drugs counteract acids so they are called antacids.
energy
Energy
  • Energy-the ability of the body to perform work.

The body depends on a continuous supply of energy.

  • Mechanical energy-energy that causes movement. Ex. Running, walking, contractions of the heart.
  • Chemical energy-energy that is stored, gives us the fuel to do work.
energy1
Energy
  • Energy can be converted from one form to another.
  • Thermal energy-energy transferred because of a temperature difference, responsible for body temperature.
  • Radiant energy-energy that travels in waves, stimulates the eyes for vision.
slide45
ATP
  • Energy that is used to power the body comes from the food that we eat.
  • As food is broken down, energy is released.
  • The energy is not used directly by the cells of the body, must be transferred to a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
slide46
ATP
  • The energy released from the ATP is the energy that can be used directly by the cells to perform tasks.
  • ATP is a high energy chemical bond that is composed of three phosphate groups, a sugar and a base.
mixture
Mixture
  • Mixture-combination of two or more substances that can be separated by ordinary physical means.
  • When separated, the substances retain their original properties.
solutions
Solutions
  • Solutions-mixtures, the particles that are mixed together remain evenly distributed .
  • A solution has two parts: the solute, the substance that is present in the smaller amount and the solvent, the part of the solution that is present in greater amounts. The solvent is usually liquid.
solutions1
Solutions
  • Aqueous solution-when water is used as the solvent.
  • Tincture-when alcohol is used as the solvent.
  • A solution is always clear and the solute does not settle to the bottom .
suspensions
Suspensions
  • Suspensions-mixtures, particles are relatively large and tend to settle to the bottom unless the mixture is shaken continuously.
  • Ex. Sand and water .
  • Colloidal suspension-particles do not dissolve, very small and remain suspended within the liquid. Colloid is a gel-like substance that resembles egg whites.