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Basic Chemistry/Chapter 2. Joe Pistack MS/ED. Matter. Matter- anything that occupies space and has weight. Ex. Chairs, desks, books. Matter exists in three states: Solid Liquid Gas. Solid. Solid -has a definite shape and Volume. Ex. Skin Bones teeth. Liquid.

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basic chemistry chapter 2

Basic Chemistry/Chapter 2

Joe Pistack MS/ED

  • Matter-anything that occupies space and has weight.
  • Ex. Chairs, desks, books.
  • Matter exists in three states:
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

Solid-has a definite shape and



  • Skin
  • Bones
  • teeth
  • Liquid-matter takes on the shape of the container that it is in.


  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Digestive juices
  • Gas-has no definite shape or volume. It too like a liquid, takes the shape of it container


  • the air we breath.
changes in matter
Changes in Matter
  • Matter can undergo two types of changes:
  • (1) physical
  • (2)chemical
  • Physical change-the matter does not chemically change, only the physical appearance changes.
  • Ex. When wood is chopped from a log into smaller pieces.
changes in matter1
Changes in Matter
  • Chemical change-occurs when the chemical composition of the matter is changed.
  • Ex. When wood is burned, wood changes to ashes.
  • The human body undergoes many physical and chemical changes.
  • Ex. Chewing is a physical change, breaks food into smaller pieces and digestion is a chemical change, it changes the food into simpler substances.
  • Element-fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions.
  • All matter living or dead is composed of elements.
  • Four elements make up 96% of the body:
  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen
  • Trace elements-present in small amounts, but are essential for life.
  • Atom-smallest unit of an element with that element’s chemical characteristics. All elements are composed of atoms.
  • Atoms are composed of: protons



trace elements
Trace Elements
  • Elements that are present in tiny amounts.
  • Essential for life.
  • Ex. Iodine , Chromium

Cobalt , Copper

Florine, Zinc

atomic structure
Atomic Structure
  • Atom-smallest unit of an element with that element’s chemical characteristic
  • Composed of three subatomic particles:
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • electrons
atomic structure1
Atomic Structure
  • Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus.
  • Protons carry a (+) electrical charge.
  • Electrons carry a (-) electrical charge.
  • Neutrons carry no electrical charge.
atomic structure2
Atomic Structure
  • Atom that have an equal number of protons and electrons are electrically neutral, and carry no electrical charge.
  • The number of protons and electrons in an atom is what makes atoms different.
atomic structure3
Atomic Structure

Two important characteristics of atoms:

(1) Atomic number-the number of protons in the nucleus.

(2) Atomic weight-determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

atomic structure4
Atomic Structure
  • Isotope-different form of the same atom.
  • Isotopes are unstable, nuclei break down or decay which gives off particles as energy waves.
  • Unstable nuclei become more stable. Unstable isotopes are called radioisotopes.
  • Radioactivity-the process of spontaneous breakdown.
  • Radioisotopes are damaging to tissue and are used clinically to destroy cells.
  • Ex. Radioactive iodine is used to destroy excess thyroid tissue. Certain radioisotopes are used to destroy cancer cells.
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Chemical bond-the attraction between the atoms.
  • Three types of chemical bonds:
  • (1) ionic bonds
  • (2) covalent bonds
  • (3) hydrogen bonds
chemical bonds1
Chemical Bonds
  • Ionic bonds-caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms.
  • Covalent bonds-involves the sharing of electrons by the outer shells of the atoms.
  • Hydrogen bonds- is not caused by either the transfer or the sharing of electrons of the outer shells of atoms.
  • Ions-elements that carry an electrical charge.
  • Cation-positively charged ion.
  • Anion-negatively charged ion.
  • Ions are formed when electrons in the outer shell are either gained or lost.
  • Electrolyte- substance that forms ions when it is dissolved in water.
  • Ionization-the process where an electrolyte splits, or breaks apart in solution. (dissociates)
  • One of the most important clinical tools in assessing a patient.
  • Help the physician to make a diagnosis.
  • May be life threatening if too high or too low.
  • Also called “lytes”.
common cations
Common Cations

Name Symbol

Sodium Na+

Calcium Ca2+

Iron Fe2+

Hydrogen H+

Potassium K+

Ammonium NH4


Fluid balance, nerve-muscle


Bones, teeth, blood clotting,

muscle contraction.

Oxygen transport, component of


Acid-base balance.

Nerve and muscle function, chief

Intracellular cation.

Acid-base regulation.

common anions
Common Anions

Name Symbol

Chloride Cl-

Bicarbonate HCO3-

Phosphate PO3/4


Primary extracellular anion.

Acid-base regulation.

Bones and teeth, component of

ATP, (energy).

  • Molecule-formed when two or more atoms bond together.
  • Two identical atoms may bond, or atoms from two different elements may combine.
  • Ex. When one atom of oxygen bonds with another atom of oxygen to form a molecule of oxygen, this is designated O2.
  • Ex. of atoms of two different elements combining:
  • Two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen to form a molecule of water (H2O).
  • Compound-a substance that contains molecules formed by two or more different atoms.
  • Ex. If two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen, water is formed, (H2O).
  • Water is considered both a molecule and a compound.
  • The most abundant compound in the body.
  • Constitutes approximately 2/3 of an adults body weight.
  • Essential for life.
  • Can only survive a few days without water.
  • Carbon Dioxide-compound consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms (C02).
  • CO2 is made when food is chemically broken down for energy.
  • CO2 is a waste product so it must be eliminated from the body.
  • Important facts about water:
  • Universal solvent-most substances dissolve in water.
  • Temperature regulator-has the ability to absorb large amounts of heat. Plays a role in temperature regulation.
  • Lubricant-major component of mucous and lubricating fluids.
  • Cushion- helps absorbs impacts throughout the body and within joints
  • Oxygen-(O2)
  • A molecule composed of two oxygen atoms.
  • Exists as a gas.
  • Air we breath contains 21% oxygen.
  • Oxygen is essential for life.
  • Oxygen gives us energy.
chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical reaction-process whereby atoms of molecules or compounds interact to form new chemical combinations.
  • The rate of the chemical reaction or how fast they occur is important.
  • If the rate of the reaction needs to be increased, a chemical substance called a catalyst is used.
acids and bases
Acids And Bases
  • A normally functioning body requires a balance between acids and bases.
  • Acid-base balance is important because the chemical reactions in the body occur when these substances are in balance.
  • Imbalances of acids and bases cause life-threatening clinical problems.
  • Acidic foods that we eat generally have a sour taste.
  • Grapefruit juice, orange juice, lemons, and vinegar are examples of acids.
  • Very strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) can cause burns and damage tissue.
  • Acid-an electrolyte that dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an ion.
  • Strong acid-dissociates completely into H+ and an ion.
  • Weak acid-does not dissociate completely.
  • Base-has a bitter taste and is slippery like soap.
  • Bases usually contain the hydroxyl ion (OH-).
  • When an acid mixes with a base, the H+ of the acid combines with the OH- of the base to form water. This neutralizes the acid.
the ph scale
The pH Scale
  • pH-unit of measurement that indicates how many H+ are in a solution.
  • The pH Scale ranges from 0 to 14.
  • Midpoint of the scale is 7, this is the point where the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in pure water is equal to the number of hydroxyl ions (OH-).
the ph scale1
The pH Scale
  • A pH that measures less than 7 on the scale indicates that the solution has more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxyl ions(OH-). The solution is said to be acidic.
  • A solution that measures more than 7 indicates fewer hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxyl ions (OH-) is said to be basic or alkaline.
the ph scale3
The pH Scale
  • The pH scale measures the degree of acidity (acid) or alkalinity (base).
  • Normal pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45 and is slightly alkaline.
  • When pH falls below 7.35 the patient is said to be acidotic. When pH rises above 7.45, the patient is said to be alkalotic.
the ph scale4
The pH Scale
  • The body needs to remain in a normal alkaline state to function normally, during periods of illness the patient’s blood pH will be monitored.
  • Blood pH is regulated by three mechanisms:

(1) buffers

(2) lungs

(3) kidneys

the ph scale5
The pH Scale
  • Patient’s with ulcers often have excess stomach acid.
  • Stomach acid can be neutralized with a drug that contains a base.
  • These types of drugs counteract acids so they are called antacids.
  • Energy-the ability of the body to perform work.

The body depends on a continuous supply of energy.

  • Mechanical energy-energy that causes movement. Ex. Running, walking, contractions of the heart.
  • Chemical energy-energy that is stored, gives us the fuel to do work.
  • Energy can be converted from one form to another.
  • Thermal energy-energy transferred because of a temperature difference, responsible for body temperature.
  • Radiant energy-energy that travels in waves, stimulates the eyes for vision.
  • Energy that is used to power the body comes from the food that we eat.
  • As food is broken down, energy is released.
  • The energy is not used directly by the cells of the body, must be transferred to a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • The energy released from the ATP is the energy that can be used directly by the cells to perform tasks.
  • ATP is a high energy chemical bond that is composed of three phosphate groups, a sugar and a base.
  • Mixture-combination of two or more substances that can be separated by ordinary physical means.
  • When separated, the substances retain their original properties.
  • Solutions-mixtures, the particles that are mixed together remain evenly distributed .
  • A solution has two parts: the solute, the substance that is present in the smaller amount and the solvent, the part of the solution that is present in greater amounts. The solvent is usually liquid.
  • Aqueous solution-when water is used as the solvent.
  • Tincture-when alcohol is used as the solvent.
  • A solution is always clear and the solute does not settle to the bottom .
  • Suspensions-mixtures, particles are relatively large and tend to settle to the bottom unless the mixture is shaken continuously.
  • Ex. Sand and water .
  • Colloidal suspension-particles do not dissolve, very small and remain suspended within the liquid. Colloid is a gel-like substance that resembles egg whites.