Download
us customary measurement system n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
US Customary Measurement System PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
US Customary Measurement System

US Customary Measurement System

211 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

US Customary Measurement System

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. US Customary Measurement System

  2. The U S Customary Measurement System • System of measurement used in the United States • Similar to the British Imperial System of Measurement, but not identical

  3. Common Items: Size Comparison

  4. Recording Measurements • A measurement always includes units • A measurement always includes error • A measurement is the best estimate of a quantity • Scientists and engineers often use significant digits to indicate the uncertainty of a measurement • Indicate the accuracy and precision of your measurement

  5. Precision and Accuracy • Precision (repeatability) = The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result • Accuracy = The degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to the actual (or accepted) value High Accuracy Low Precision Low Accuracy High Precision High Accuracy High Precision

  6. Recording Measurements • Ideally, a measurement device is both accurate and precise • Accuracy is dependent on calibration to a standard • Precision is dependent on the characteristics and/or capabilities of the measuring device and its use • Record only to the precision to which you and your measuring device can measure

  7. Significant Digits • Accepted practice in science is to indicate uncertainty of measurement • Significant digits are digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the uncertainty of the quantity • The digits you record for a measurement are considered significant • Include all certain digits in a measurement and one uncertain digit • Note: Fractions are “fuzzy” numbers in which significant digits are not directly indicated

  8. Recording Measurements • General Rules • Digital Instruments: Read and record all the numbers, including zeros after the decimal point, exactly as displayed • Decimal Scaled Instruments: Record all digits that you can certainly determine from the scale markings and estimate one more digit • Preferred over fractional scaled instruments • Fractional Scaled Instruments: Need special consideration

  9. Fractional Length Measurement • A typical ruler provides • A 12 inch graduated scale in US Customary units • Each inch is graduated into smaller divisions, typically 1/16” increments

  10. The Inch • The divisions on the U S Customary units scale are easily identified by different sized markings. The largest markings on the scale identify the inch.

  11. The Inch • Each subsequently shorter tick mark indicates half of the distance between next longer tick marks. • For example the next smaller tick mark indicates half of an inch = ½ inch 1/2

  12. The Inch • Half of a half = ¼ inch. An English scale shows ¼ inch and ¾ inch marks. • All fractions must be reduced to lowest terms. 1/4 3/4

  13. The Inch • Half of a quarter = 1/8 inch 7/8 1/8 3/8 5/8

  14. The Inch • Half of an eighth = 1/16 inch 1/16 9/16 5/16 13/16 3/16 7/16 11/16 15/16

  15. Measurement: Using a Fractional Scale • How long is the rectangle? • Let’s look a little closer

  16. Measurement: Using a Fractional Scale • How long is the rectangle? • What fraction of an inch does this mark represent? 3/16 1/4 1/2 1/8

  17. Measurement: Using a Fractional Scale • How long is the rectangle? What is the midpoint of 2 1/8 and 2 3/16? 5/32 3/16 1/8

  18. Measurement: Using a Fractional Scale • How do we determine that 5/32 is midway between 1/8 and 3/16? • Convert each fraction to a common denominator: 32 5 Find the average of the two measurements

  19. Recording a Measurement: Using a Fractional Scale • How long is the rectangle? • Remember the General Rule • Fractional Scaled Instruments require special consideration • Are 6 significant digits appropriate??? • 1/16 in. = .0625 in.

  20. Recording a Measurement: Using a Fractional Scale • For the standard ruler marked in 1/16 inch increments (least count = 1/16 in.) • Record fraction measurements to the nearest 1/32 inch • Record decimal equivalent to the nearest hundredths of an inch • Record with your data • The least count of the scale (1/16 in.) • The increment to which measurements are estimated (nearest 1/32 in.) 5 32 2 in. 2.16 in.

  21. Your Turn Record each measurement in fractional and decimal inches.