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Descriptive Methods. Naturalistic Observation. AKA “field operation” Observing natural or true behaviors High in ecological validity (external validity) Extent to which research can be generalized to real-life situations Two Options Nonparticipant observation Participant observation.

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naturalistic observation
Naturalistic Observation
  • AKA “field operation”
  • Observing natural or true behaviors
  • High in ecological validity (external validity)
    • Extent to which research can be generalized to real-life situations
  • Two Options
    • Nonparticipant observation
    • Participant observation
disguised observation
Disguised observation
  • Participants are unaware that the researcher is observing their behavior
  • Unobtrusive
  • Minimizes reactivity
  • Concerned with expectancy effects
    • Desired outcome by experimenters
laboratory observation
Laboratory Observation
  • Systematic observations
  • Control high internal validity
  • Reactivity and expectancy effects still concern
data collection
Data Collection
  • Narrative Records-full description
  • Checklists
    • Time
    • Location
    • Measures beh
      • Yes / no
      • Time series
qualitative research
Qualitative Research
  • Field settings
    • Unstructure
    • No manipulation
  • Case studies
  • Archival Method
  • Interviews
  • Action Research
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