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FIR & Sub-mm Astronomy comes of age Herschel Space Observatory Observing Opportunities. Mattia Vaccari - University of Padova Alberto Franceschini & Giulia Rodighiero Thanks also to Carol, Jim, Matt, Michael, Seb & all the ISOCAM, ELAIS, SHADES, SWIRE, SPIRE & SCUBA2 folks.

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fir sub mm astronomy comes of age herschel space observatory observing opportunities

FIR & Sub-mm Astronomy comes of ageHerschel Space ObservatoryObserving Opportunities

Mattia Vaccari - University of Padova

Alberto Franceschini & Giulia Rodighiero

Thanks also to Carol, Jim, Matt, Michael, Seb & all the

ISOCAM, ELAIS, SHADES, SWIRE, SPIRE & SCUBA2 folks

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

the fir sub mm universe
The FIR & Sub-mm Universe

1000

100

UV/Opt/NIR

FIR/Sub-mm

Sky Brightness (nW/m2/sr)

10

1

1

10

100

1000

Wavelength [mm]

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

slide3

The effects of dust extinction and

the degeneracy of optical observables

Lagache et al 2005

Sanders & Mirabel 1996

Degeneracy is old-fashioned

Time for panchromatic SEDs

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

the cosmic infrared background resolved into discrete sources
The Cosmic Infrared BackgroundResolved Into Discrete Sources

The integrated background light in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter region of the spectrum is approximately equal to the integrated background light in the optical and UV part of the spectrum. To develop a complete understanding of galaxy formation, this background light must be resolved into galaxies and their physical properties must be characterized.

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

into thin air fir sub mm atmospheric transmission vs precipitable water vapor
Into Thin Air : FIR & Sub-mm Atmospheric Transmission vs Precipitable Water Vapor

PWV = 1.0 mm

PWV = 0.5 mm

PWV = 0.2 mm

PWV = 0.1 mm

Minier et al 2007

PWV ~ Chajnantor 30%

PWV ~ Dome C 30%

Lower atmospheric transmission is generally coupled with higher (sky & instrumental) background and temporal variability

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

the herschel mission
The Herschel Mission
  • Herschel is an ESA cornerstone mission
    • spacecraft, launch (scheduled for 31 Oct 2008) and operations provided by ESA
    • instruments ‘nationally’ funded with international collaborators
  • Herschel is the first space facility to completely cover this part of the far infrared and submillimeter (60 - 670 m) range
    • large (3.5 m) aperture, low emissivity (~5%), passively cooled (70-90 K) telescope
    • cryogenically cooled focal plane science instruments with >3 years lifetime
    • total absence of atmospheric absorption and emission
    • full spectral access with low and stable background
  • Herschel has unique and complementary characteristics
    • first 4-m class space telescope ever, has much larger aperture than missions with cryogenically cooled telescopes (IRAS, ISO, Spitzer, Akari,…)
    • larger & colder aperture, better ‘site’, and more observing time than balloon- and air-born instruments (~1000 SOFIA flights per year)
    • larger field of view than interferometers
  • PACS - PI : Albrecht Poglitsch, MPE, Garching, Germany
    • imaging photometry and spectroscopy over 57-210 m
  • SPIRE - PI : Matt Griffin, Univerity of Wales, Cardiff, London, United Kingdom
    • imaging photometry and spectroscopy over 200-670 m
  • HIFI - PI : Thijs de Graauw, SRON, Groningen, The Netherlands
    • very high resolution spectroscopy over 480-1250 and 1410-1910 GHz (157-625 m)

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

the actual spacecraft
The Actual Spacecraft

Launch : 31 Oct 2008

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

herschel main science objectives the young cold dusty universe
Herschel Main Science ObjectivesThe Young & Cold & Dusty Universe
  • Study the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early universe
    • how and when did galaxies form?
    • is there an unknown population of high-z IR galaxies?
    • star formation rates? bolometric luminosities?
    • Starburst vs AGN fraction?
    • ‘connect’ near-IR and sub-mm galaxies
  • Study the formation of stars and physics of the interstellar medium
    • how do stars form out of the interstellar medium?
    • circulation/enrichment of the interstellar medium - astrochemistry
    • detailed studies of nearby (resolvable) galaxies - templates
  • Study cometary, planetary, and satellite atmospheres
    • history of the solar system
    • pristine material in comets
    • important water lines

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

slide9

PACS

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

slide10

SPIRE Observing Capabilities

• 3-band Imaging Photometer

- 250, 360, 520 mm (simultaneous) - l/Dl ~ 3 - 4 x 8 arcmin field of view - Diffraction limited beams (17, 24, 35”)

• Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

- 200 - 670 mm (complete range covered simultaneously) - 2.6 arcmin field of view - Ds = 0.04 cm-1 (l/Dl ~ 20 - 1000 at 250 mm)

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

spire detector arrays
SPIRE Detector Arrays

Photometer

500 m

43 detectors

350 m

88 detectors

250 m

139 detectors

 Beam FWHM

4 arcmin

Sets of detectors with exactly overlapping beams on the sky

Spectrometer

200 – 325 mm

37detectors

8 arcmin

315 – 670 mm 19detectors

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

herschel ao schedule 31 oct 2008 launch
Herschel AO Schedule (31 Oct 2008 Launch)

Overall (3-yr Baseline Mission) Observing Time Breakdown : ~ 1000 days ~ 20000 hrs

Guaranteed Time (GT) = 32% & Open Time (OT) = 68%

GT = 30% each to 3 PIs, 7% to HSC, 3% divided between 5 Mission Scientists

  • Commissioning, Performance Verification & Science Demonstration L - L+6m
  • Routine Science Operations L+6m - L+42 m
  • GT & OT Key Projects AO Issue 01 Feb 2007
  • GT Key Projects Proposal AO Deadline 05 Apr 2007 (~ 5000 hr)
  • GT Key Projects Results Announcement 05 Jul 2007
  • OT Key Projects Proposal AO Deadline 25 Oct 2007 (~ 5500 hr)
  • OT Key Projects Results Announcement 28 Feb 2008
  • GT & OT Cycle 1 Projects AO Issue 28 Feb 2008
  • GT Cycle 1 Projects Proposal AO Deadline 03 Apr 2008 (~ 1000 hr)
  • GT Cycle 1 Projects Results Announcement 05 Jun 2008
  • OT Cycle 1 Projects AO Deadline Late 2008 (~ 5000 hr)
  • GT & OT Cycle 2 Projects AO Deadline Late 2009 (~ 500 hr + 3000 hr)
  • Extra Time (0.5 yr “expected” extended mission) Later (~ 3000 hr)

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

padova involvement
Padova Involvement
  • University
    • Alberto Franceschini : SPIRE Co-I
    • Giulia Rodighiero : PACS High-z Science Consortium Member
    • Mattia Vaccari : SPIRE Associate Scientist & ICC Scientist
    • Gabriele Mainetti : newly hired PhD student
  • Observatory
    • Gianfranco De Zotti : SPIRE Consultant
    • Pasquale Panuzzo (2003-2006) : SPIRE ICC Scientist
  • Main focus is on high-z galaxy studies through a coordinated program of PACS GT (PEP) and SPIRE GT (HERMES) surveys and on the PACS & SPIRE Instrument Control Centers (ICCs)
  • PEP + HERMES ~ 1500 hr and arguably the largest single space astronomy project ever (at a very reasonable 50,000 Euros/hr)

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari

where do we go from here
Where do we go from here?
  • Herschel will launch on 31 Oct 2008 but in the meantime
    • EARA Herschel WorkShop (18-19 Feb @ IAP)
    • ASI/INAF Herschel Open Time WorkShop (10-12 Mar @ ASI)
    • Open Time AO Issue & Deadline expected in March & Late 2008
  • Look up info & watch out for updates at http://herschel.esac.esa.int
  • Note that SCUBA2@JCMT (450/850 m) and AZTEC@LMT (1.1 mm) are also coming online sometime over the next year or so
  • Well, looking forward to launch…

Herschel

Mattia Vaccari