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marshall mcluhan
All media work us over completely. They are so pervasive in their personal, political, economic, aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched, unaffected, unaltered. The medium is the massage. Any understanding of social and cultural change is impossible without a knowledge of the way media work as environments.

(McLuhan, Understanding Media , 1967)

Marshall McLuhan
bullet or hypodermic theory
Bullet or Hypodermic Theory


Source Receiver

two way process
Two-Way Process


Source Receiver


stalagmite theories
Stalagmite Theories
  • Slow and subtle effects of mass communication
  • Social Learning Theory
    • media are active, though subtle, educators in teaching about the world
cultivation theory
Cultivation Theory
  • “mainstreaming”
  • “affirmation for believers” and “indoctrination for deviants”
  • “story-telling role”
  • stereotyping and perceived reality
  • “cultivation of complacency”
agenda setting theory
Agenda Setting Theory

The true power of the media is not in telling people what to think, but in telling them what to think about.

media effects theories
Media Effects Theories
  • McLuhan and Toronto school
    • media affect how we organize our thoughts
  • Meaning Theory
      • media mould meaning
      • meaning may or may not be shared with audiences and producers
media effects theories1
Media Effects Theories
  • Audience Use Theories
  • how receivers use media and the messages received
    • entertain, inform, escape, companion
media and health promotion
Media and Health Promotion
  • Mass communication theories fit well with health promotion concepts
    • Health Belief Model can use Social Learning Theory and Cultivation Analysis Theory
    • Agenda Setting role of media useful in marketing awareness to assist with move through stages of TTM
health promotion work policy development
Health Promotion Work-- Policy development
  • Policies that establish
    • Healthy workplaces
    • Healthy schools
    • Healthy communities
    • Food access
    • Food availability
    • Reduced # living on low incomes
    • Limited exclusion of low income Canadians from participating in society
    • Restored social safety net

Brauer, et al., 2006

adult education
Adult Education
  • Adult roles, responsibilities, & previous experiences influence learning

- topic relevant to their lives

- hands-on learning

  • Adult learning is constantly occurring
  • Role of adult educator to facilitate this continuous learning process
adult education1
Adult Education
  • Formal and Informal learning
    • Working with experience
    • Dialoguing & storytelling
    • Networking
adult education2
Adult Education
  • Themed throughout course
    • Health promotion
    • Capacity building
    • Community development
    • Participatory approaches
    • Enlightenment, empowerment & emancipation
best practices in nutrition interventions
Best Practices in Nutrition Interventions
  • Lit review by Cancer Care Ontario
  • Searched e-databases + key informant interviews
  • ID’d effective interventions
    • program
    • policy
    • media
health promotion approaches programs
Health Promotion Approaches -- Programs
  • Education, awareness & skill building
    • knowledge gained  motivation & attitude change
    • require booster interventions as reinforcement (aka follow-up)
    • supports needed to facilitate new “behaviour”
    • supports for reinforcement of change
health promotion approaches programs1
Health Promotion Approaches -- Programs
  • Community Action
    • Focuses on community as force to ID & solve its problems
      • Empowerment, capacity building
health promotion approaches programs2
Health Promotion Approaches -- Programs
  • Environmental Support
    • Addresses physical & social aspects of environment
      • local action groups, mutual aid networks
    • can enhance & support health attitudes, behaviours
health promotion approaches media efforts
Health Promotion Approaches -- Media Efforts
  • Series of planned activities directed at whole populations
  • Primary roles of media:
    • presenter of new ideas
    • supporter to reinforce old messages
    • supplement to other program activities
    • promoter of programs
health promotion approaches policies
Health Promotion Approaches -- Policies
  • Guide activities & resource allocation to contribute to development of healthy environment
health promotion approaches theory
Health Promotion Approaches -- Theory
  • Theory attempts to explain behaviour
  • Can guide development of effective interventions
  • All programs have a theory
    • not possible not to have a theory
best practices in nutrition interventions1
Best Practicesin Nutrition Interventions
  • Used participatory models
    • planning, implementation, evaluation
  • Grounded in theory
  • Multiple strategies
  • Provided training & support
    • essential
  • Targeted stage of change
best practices in nutrition interventions2
Best Practicesin Nutrition Interventions
  • Involved family
    • NB source of support
  • Adequate intensity & duration
    • not one-time events
  • Clear, simple messages
  • Considered political climate
  • Open communication lines
    • between involved organizations
best practices recommendations
Best Practices -- Recommendations
  • Development stage
    • participatory models
    • included all stakeholders
      • ID needs & priorities, develop strategies
    • target population
      • begin to develop skill base needed to sustain program
best practices recommendations1
Best Practices -- Recommendations
  • Effective implementation
    • adequate resources
    • training & support to sustain intervention long enough to bring about desired change
    • funding provided for intensive evaluation
best practices on the web
Best Practices on the Web
  • PHAC launched portal at conference Nov 5-8/06
  • Canadian Best Practices Portal for Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Demonstrate knowledge necessary for conducting health promotion that includes:
    • Applying determinants of health framework to analysis of health issues
    • Applying theory to health promotion planning & implementations
    • Applying health promotion principles in context of roles & responsibilities of public health organizations
    • Describing range of interventions available to address public health issues
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft1
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Conduct community needs/situational assessment for specific issues that include:
    • ID behavioural, social, environmental & organizational factors that promote or compromise health
    • ID relevant & appropriate data & information sources
    • ID community assets & resources
    • Partner with communities to validate collected quant & qual data
    • Integrate information from available sources to ID priorities for action
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft2
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Plan appropriate health promotion programs that includes:
    • ID, retrieving & critically appraising relevant literature
    • Conduct environmental scan of best practices
    • Develop component plan to implement programs including goals, objectives & implementations steps
    • Develop program budget
    • Monitor & evaluate implementation of interventions
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft3
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Contribute to policy development that includes:
    • Describing implications of policy options
      • health, economic, admin, legal, social & political
    • Provide strategic policy advice on health promotion issues
    • Write clear & concise policy statements for complex issues
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft4
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Facilitate community mobilization & build community capacity around shared health priorities that includes:
    • Engaging in dialogue with communities based on trust & mutual respect
    • ID & strengthen local community capacities to take action on health issues
    • Advocate for & with individuals & communities that will improve their health & well-being
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft5
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Engage in partnership & collaboration that includes:
    • Establish & maintain linkages with community leaders & other key health promotion stakeholders (e.g., schools, businesses, churches, community associations, labour unions, etc.)
    • Utilize leadership, team building, negotiation & conflict resolution skills to build community partnerships
    • Build coalitions & stimulating intersectoral collaboration on health issues
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft6
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Communicate effectively with community members & other professionals that include:
    • Provide health status, demographic, statistical, programmatic, & scientific information tailored to professional & lay audiences
    • Apply social marketing & other communication principles to the development, implementation & evaluation of health communication campaigns
    • Use media, advanced technologies, & community networks to receive & communicate information
    • Interact with, & adapt policies & programming that responds to diversity in population characteristics
pan canadian competencies for health promoters draft7
Pan-Canadian Competencies for Health Promoters -- Draft
  • Organize, implement & manage health promotion interventions that includes:
    • Training & coordinating program volunteers
    • Describe scope of work in context of organization’s mission & functions
    • Contribute to team & organizational learning
key proficiencies
Key Proficiencies
  • Knowledge
    • Behaviour change & education theories
    • Nutrition throughout the lifecycle
    • Cultural sensitivity
    • Knowledge about policy & policy process
    • Principles of adult education
key proficiencies1
Key Proficiencies
  • Skills
    • Counseling & education methods
    • Create safe environment to facilitate learning & trust
    • Communication
    • Listening
    • Ability to empathize
    • Compassion
key proficiencies2
Key Proficiencies
  • Behaviours
    • Modeling a healthy lifestyle
    • Demonstrate genuine empathy
    • Allow participants to determine own goals
    • Listening without judging
key proficiencies3
Key Proficiencies
  • Core Beliefs
    • Communities are capable of making change
    • Adults are capable of self direction
    • Community is expert on itself
    • People learn in various ways
    • Respect for others
    • Policy is the root of our food system
    • A few people really can make a difference in the world
key proficiencies4
Key Proficiencies
  • Values
    • All people deserve & want health
    • A value of people
    • A value of wellness
    • A value of lifelong learning
    • Personal honesty & respect for others
    • Caring, compassion, & it is part of life’s mission to help others without the need to impose your beliefs or values on others
key proficiencies5
Key Proficiencies
  • Character Traits
    • Flexibility to tailor approach to needs of client
    • Willingness to provide superior customer service
    • Compassion
    • Enthusiasm
    • Energy
    • Humility
key proficiencies6
Key Proficiencies
  • Motivations
    • Reward of helping people achieve their goals
    • Desire to help people help themselves
    • Desire to make positive difference in the lives of others
future program directions
Future Program Directions
  • Need better efforts “to integrate program to minimize duplication & optimize resources”
  • Need “sustained long-term resources to facilitate comprehensive evaluation”
  • Involving stakeholders in program development, implementation & evaluation “could be crucial to the success of interventions”
          • Flynn, McNeil, Maloff, et al., 2006
job interview question areas
Job Interview Question Areas
  • Based on Critical Factors for Eligibility
    • Knowledge/Education
    • Communication Skills
    • Interpersonal Skills
    • Problem Solving Skills
    • Organizational Skills
    • Ability to function as part of a team
best practices article
Best Practices Article

Flynn, M.A.T., McNeil, D.A., Maloff, B., Mutasingwa, D., Wu, M, Ford, C., & Tough, S.C. (2006). Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: A synthesis of evidence with ‘best practice’ recommendations. Obesity Reviews, 7(Suppl.1), 7-66.

[published by The International Association for the Study of Obesity]