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Elastic and Inelastic Collisions. Chapter 6 Section 3. Collisions. There are many different collisions in which two objects collide. Sports Vehicles Arrow and target. Kinetic Energy and Collisions.

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Presentation Transcript
collisions
Collisions
  • There are many different collisions in which two objects collide.
    • Sports
    • Vehicles
    • Arrow and target
kinetic energy and collisions
Kinetic Energy and Collisions
  • Momentum is always conserved in a collision, but the total kinetic energy is generally not conserved.
  • Some of the energy is converted to thermal energy (heat) and internal elastic potential energy when the objects deform.
perfectly inelastic collisions
Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
  • Perfectly Inelastic collisions – A collision in which two objects stick together and move with a common velocity after colliding.
  • Examples:
    • Arrow hitting a target
    • Bullet lodging into a wood block
    • Meteorite colliding with Earth and becomes buried
perfectly inelastic collisions1
Perfectly Inelastic Collisions

m1v1i + m2v2i = (m1+m2)vf

  • Since the objects stick together after the collision, the masses must be added together for the final velocity.
distinctions between collisions
Distinctions Between Collisions
  • Elastic Collision – Objects maintain their original shape and are not deformed after colliding.
  • Inelastic Collision – Objects are deformed during the collision and lose kinetic energy.
  • Perfectly Inelastic Collision – Objects join together after a collision to form one mass.
kinetic energy lost
Kinetic Energy Lost
  • Energy is lost during an inelastic collision and not a elastic collision.
  • In most cases energy is lost during a perfectly inelastic collision, but not always.
    • How much deformation and how the objects stick together play a factor.
kinetic energy equations
Kinetic Energy Equations

KElost = KEi – KEf

Kinetic Energy Lost = Initial Kinetic Energy – Final Kinetic Energy

example problem
Example Problem
  • A clay ball with a mass of 0.35 kg hits another 0.35 kg ball at rest, and the two stick together. The first ball has an initial speed of 4.2m/s
    • What is the final speed of the balls?
    • Calculate the decrease in kinetic energy that occurs during the collision.
    • What percentage of the kinetic energy is converted to other forms of energy?
elastic collisions
Elastic Collisions
  • Elastic Collisions – A collision in which the total momentum and the total kinetic energy remains constant.
  • The objects remain separate after the collision.
  • Examples:
    • Kicking a soccer ball with your foot
    • Hitting a baseball with a bat
    • Billiards
everyday collisions
Everyday Collisions
  • Most collisions are neither elastic or perfectly inelastic in everyday activities.
  • In most collisions, kinetic energy is lost.
    • This places them into the category of inelastic collisions.
kinetic energy and elastic collisions
Kinetic Energy and Elastic Collisions
  • Kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collisions.
  • The total momentum and the total kinetic energy remain constant through out the collision.
momentum and kinetic energy equations
Momentum and Kinetic Energy Equations

m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f

  • Momentum equation can be used for all collisions.

½m1v1i²+ ½m2v2i²= ½m1v1f²+ ½m2v2f²

  • Kinetic Energy equation can only be used for elastic collisions.
making sure collisions are elastic
Making Sure Collisions Are Elastic
  • To check and see if a collision is an elastic collision:
    • Solve the problem using the conservation of momentum equation.
    • Plug the velocities into the conservation of kinetic velocity equation and see if the total initial velocity and the total final velocity are equal.
    • If they are, then it is a true elastic collision.