Chapter 8 Review The Prophet Muhammad
Mecca: A trading center and religious city A CENTER OF TRADE AND WARFARE • It was a very prosperous city due to being a central location on many trade routes • Many Clans lived in and ruled over the city • Clans had their own customs, gods, traditions, and rules A RELIGIOUS CITY • The Ka’ba, built by Abraham for God • At this time, the Ka’ba (Cube) housed many idols • This was a religious destination for many Arabs
Clans and Tribes: The good and the bad • There was no central government in Arabia • Arabs pledged loyalty to their clans (extended family) and tribes (a social group that shares a common ancestry, leadership, and traditions) • Clans fought over land, water, animals, goods, and even wives • Clans were often honor-bound to avenge a member’s death and therefore continued the cycle of warfare • WHAT ALL CLANS HAD IN COMMON: The Arabic language and Arabic culture
Muhammad is born: 570 CE • He was born in Mecca in a poor clan called Hashim • By the time he was 6, his mother and father had died, so he was raised by his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib and then his uncle, Abu Talib • Muhammad worked with his uncle as a trader and was known for being honest • Muhammad began working for Khadija who then proposed marriage when Muhammad was only 25
What happened in 610CE? • Muhammad went to pray in a cave in the mountains • It was there that he received the call to be a prophet (a messenger of God, Allah) • The angel Gabriel came to Muhammad in the cave and told him to “recite” and told him that he is the messenger of God • The God of Muhammad, Allah, is the same God of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. • So, all people who follow and believe in this God are called “People of the Book”- Jews and Christians
Muhammad gains followers • Khadija (his wife), Ali (his cousin), and Abu Bakr (his father-in-law) were the first to follow Muhammad’s teachings • A small group of followers developed in Mecca • They called themselves Muslims – “those who surrender to God” • For Muhammad’s followers, Islam was a way to create a just society • He taught about treating people with compassion, honesty, and justice. • Eventually some followers wrote down Muhammad’s teachings- these words were put together and became known as the Qur’an (the Muslim holy book)
Not everyone thought Muhammad had the right idea • He taught that the rich should share their wealth – many Clan leaders didn’t like this • Leaders were afraid that Muhammad would take political power • Merchants worried that people would stop making pilgrimages to Mecca if they did not need to worship their idols • Many polytheistic (worshiping many gods) Arabs did not want to give up their idols • HOWEVER, Muhammad was protected by Abu Talib, the head of his clan
The Night Journey • In 619, the Qur’an tells that a winged horse took Muhammad to Jerusalem. • Once in Jerusalem, Muhammad prayed with Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. • Then the horse guided Muhammad through the 7 levels of heaven, and Muhammad met God. • Jerusalem is still a holy city for Muslims. • THIS IS A PICTURE OF THE DOME OF THE ROCK, THE PLACE WHERE MUHAMMAD ENDED HIS NIGHT JOURNEY.
Tensions between Muslims and Makkans • In 622, Muhammad and his followers went on a hijrah(journey) to Yathrib, and renamed it Medina. • This became the first year of the Muslim calendar. • Despite Islam becoming more popular, and spreading throughout the Arabian Peninsula, there was still tension and fighting between the Makkans and Muslims • Finally, in 630, Muhammad and his army marched toward Mecca and destroyed all of the idols in the Ka’ba, rededicating the shrine to Allah • In 632, Muhammad led his final pilgrimage and delivered his last sermon in Mecca before he died.
The four Caliphs • A Caliph is a Muslim ruler • The government was called the Caliphate • The first 4 were all relatives of Muhammad • 1st: Abu Bakr- He used military campaigns to unite the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. • 2nd: Umar – He expanded the Muslim empire and spread the faith of Islam which allowed the empire to gain new resources and goods. • 3rd: Uthman – He was a member of the Umayyad clan and continued to help unite Muslims by choosing an official edition fo the Qur’an. Was killed by rebels. • 4th: Ali ibnAbiTalib: Was reluctant to become Caliph, but did despite many Umayyads challenging his rule. He was eventually killed by someone who did not agree with his actions.
Who are the Sunnis and Shi’a?Both are groups of Islamic faith • Sunnis (majority of Muslims) believe that anybody who is capable can be Caliph • Shi’a (minority of Muslims) believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad can become Caliph