Microbiology and Cell Biology The basis of biotechnology
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic CellsCells are the basic unit of life. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes • Single-celled • No nucleus • No membrane-bound organelles • Smaller (0.001 to 0.75 mm) • Single or multi-celled • Have a nucleus • Have membrane-bound organelles • Larger
Three Domains Domains of Life Eukarya Eukaryotes Archaea -prokaryotes - often extremophiles Bacteria -prokaryotes - largest group
Man’s Use of Microorganisms Microbiology – study of microorganisms (microbes) and their effects on living organisms. • Antibiotics • Model systems • Biological weapons • Biofuels • Food additives • Pharmaceutical and protein production
Koch’s Postulates • The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease but should not be found in healthy animals. • The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture. • The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism. • The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
Importance of Antibiotics • A medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys a microorganism • Main line of defense against bacterial disease • First discovered in 1928 by Alexander Flemming (penicillin) • 1940s – large scale use began in the military during WWII • Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase.
Identifying Bacteria - Gram staining • Invented by Hans Christian Gram in 1882 • Two purposes: • Determine the cell wall composition • Make the shape of the cells visible (400x to 1000x magnification)
Identifying BacteriaBased on the thickness of the peptidoglycan cell wall Gram-positive Gram-negative • Cell walls are thick so they take up the stain. • Tend to turn purple or blue w/ Gram stain • Cell walls are thin so they do not take up the stain. • Tend to turn red w/ Gram stain.
Identifying Bacteria - Assays • Tests the activity of a drug or biomolecule in an organism or sample • Ex: Starch hydrolysis test – determines if bacteria produce amylase
Three typesbasedupon their shapes… Bacteria Classification “strepto” from Greek streptos meaning ‘twisted chain’ “staphylo” from Greek staphulemeaning ‘bunch of grapes’
Where do Bacteria Live? • Use photos
Uses of Eukaryotic Cells in Biotechnology • Fermentation – yeast • Protein production • Therapeutic drugs – i.e. antibodies • Stem cells • Embryonic • Adult/ Induced pluripotent
Resources • http://cleanairsystems.biz/images/bac02.jpg • http://textbookofbacteriology.net/Anthrax.html • http://mortada8.maktoobblog.com/category/microbiology-immunology/bacteria/