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Microbiology and Cell Biology
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  1. Microbiology and Cell Biology The basis of biotechnology

  2. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic CellsCells are the basic unit of life. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes • Single-celled • No nucleus • No membrane-bound organelles • Smaller (0.001 to 0.75 mm) • Single or multi-celled • Have a nucleus • Have membrane-bound organelles • Larger

  3. Three Domains Domains of Life Eukarya Eukaryotes Archaea -prokaryotes - often extremophiles Bacteria -prokaryotes - largest group

  4. Man’s Use of Microorganisms Microbiology – study of microorganisms (microbes) and their effects on living organisms. • Antibiotics • Model systems • Biological weapons • Biofuels • Food additives • Pharmaceutical and protein production

  5. Koch’s Postulates • The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease but should not be found in healthy animals. • The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture. • The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism. • The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.

  6. Importance of Antibiotics • A medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys a microorganism • Main line of defense against bacterial disease • First discovered in 1928 by Alexander Flemming (penicillin) • 1940s – large scale use began in the military during WWII • Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase.

  7. Anatomy of a Bacteria

  8. Identifying Bacteria - Gram staining • Invented by Hans Christian Gram in 1882 • Two purposes: • Determine the cell wall composition • Make the shape of the cells visible (400x to 1000x magnification)

  9. Identifying BacteriaBased on the thickness of the peptidoglycan cell wall Gram-positive Gram-negative • Cell walls are thick so they take up the stain. • Tend to turn purple or blue w/ Gram stain • Cell walls are thin so they do not take up the stain. • Tend to turn red w/ Gram stain.

  10. Figure 3.6

  11. Identifying Bacteria - Assays • Tests the activity of a drug or biomolecule in an organism or sample • Ex: Starch hydrolysis test – determines if bacteria produce amylase

  12. Three typesbasedupon their shapes… Bacteria Classification “strepto” from Greek streptos meaning ‘twisted chain’ “staphylo” from Greek staphulemeaning ‘bunch of grapes’

  13. In the guts (digestive tracts) of animals

  14. Where do Bacteria Live? • Use photos

  15. Morning Glory Pool (hot spring), Yellowstone National Park

  16. Sulfur-consuming bacteria form “cave snot”

  17. Bacteria in glaciers has been estimated at 8 million years old

  18. salt marsh bacteria

  19. Anatomy of a Eukaryotic Cell

  20. Uses of Eukaryotic Cells in Biotechnology • Fermentation – yeast • Protein production • Therapeutic drugs – i.e. antibodies • Stem cells • Embryonic • Adult/ Induced pluripotent

  21. Resources • http://cleanairsystems.biz/images/bac02.jpg • http://textbookofbacteriology.net/Anthrax.html • http://mortada8.maktoobblog.com/category/microbiology-immunology/bacteria/