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Jesus' Passion & Death
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  1. Jesus' Passion& Death Pax Christiv.Pax Romana

  2. Jesus “Sets His Face” toward Jerusalem • Peter’s Confession (# 122 Mark 8:27-33 & // • The big question: “Who do people/you say I am?” • Peter: “You are the Messiah” – first open identification. • Jesus: commands silence; announces suffering and death. • Peter’s objection – can’t fathom a suffering messiah. • Jesus’ rebuke: “Get behind me Satan;” warning of suffering discipleship. • Three “Passion Predictions” Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:33-34) • Pattern: prediction; disciples’ misunderstanding; rebuke. • Authenticity: debated. • Goes to challenge Jerusalem authorities. • Aware of danger – even if Passion Predictions are inauthentic or reworked, he likely expected a violent death. • Willing to die. Based on a presentation constructed by Donald N. Penny, Ph.D., Professor of Religion, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  3. Triumphal entry • # 196–Mark 11:1-10 & // • “Symbolic action” – cf. OT prophets. • Rides donkey like OT kings; crowds hail as king or royal messiah (Ps. 118:26). • Mt. sees Jesus fulfilling Zech. 9:9, which pictures a humble, “peaceful king” who rides a donkey rather than war horse and rules the world in peace. (Crossan: is this scene “history remembered” or “prophecy historicized”?) • Declares Jesus king or announces arrival of God’s kingdom. • Does crowd expect Jesus to seize power? • Passover week: liberationist hopes ran high; Jesus’ action is potentially provocative. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  4. Jesus’ “Temple Tantrum” • # 200 Mark11:15-19 & // • Jesus stages a “temple tantrum” in Court of Gentiles. • Disrupts business of money-changers and pigeon-sellers (necessary for temple operation); takes control of outer court. • Quotes Isa. 56:7 – “my house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations” (context speaks of foreigners coming to temple). • Jer. 7:11 – “but you have made it a den of robbers” (Jer. goes on to predict the destruction of the temple). • What does Jesus find wrong with the temple? • Presence of business activity is not conducive to worship. • Temple traders are dishonest; overcharging; exploiting pilgrims. • Temple authorities use system of tithes/sacrifices/temple tax to oppress the poor and enrich themselves. • Temple rituals are no longer the means of access to God. • Interpretations of “symbolic action” fall into two main camps: • Cleanses/purifies temple of abuses, perhaps in preparation for eschatological coming of the Gentiles (cf. Isa 56). • Predicts/threatens destruction of temple, by Rome or by God (cf. Jer. 7; Mark 13:2; 14:57-59; 15:29). • Provoked temple authorities to take action against Jesus. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  5. Lepton Teaching in the Temple • Mark 11:27-12:44 & // • Jesus’ authority questioned (vv. 27-33). • Parable of Wicked Tenants (12:1-12) – authorities have rejected God’s messengers; “vineyard” will be given to “others.” • Series of “entrapping” questions (Roman tax; resurrection; first commandment). • Attacks on the pretentiousness and greed of the scribes (cf. Mt.’s woes on scribes and Pharisees). • Lesson of the “widow’s mite” – her “two small copper coins” (worth less than a penny) were more than the “large sums” of the rich. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  6. Eschatological discourse • Mark 13 & // • Predicts devastating destruction of temple. • Coming of “Son of Man” to gather the elect. • What will survive (presumably) is a “renewed Israel,” founded on the principles and values of God’s reign. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  7. The Markan Passion • Mark 14-15 & // • Conspiracy Mark 14:1-2, 10-11 & // • Authorities looking for chance to arrest Jesus away from crowds. • Judas Iscariot offers to betray him (cf. newly published “Gospel of Judas”). • Anointing in Bethany Mark 14:3-9 & // Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  8. Traditional House of the Upper Room The Last Supper • # 234-237Mark 14:12-25 & //; John 13; 1 Cor 11:23-26 • Problem of dating. • Synoptics: Passover meal (evening of Nisan 15) – 2 disciples sent to prepare Mark 14:12-16). • John: Passover eve (evening of Nisan 14) – lambs sacrificed next day, as Jesus was being crucified (Jn. 18:28; 19:14). Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  9. The Last Supper • Prediction of betrayal – one who is dipping bread with me. • Blessing of bread and wine (“words of institution;” “eucharistic words”) – variety of wordings gives rise to various interpretations: • “This is my body…This is my blood” (Justin Martyr). • Jesus’ death as martyrdom. • In Judaism, martyrdom of the righteous was thought to have atoning value for nation. • “Take; this is my body…This is my blood…which is poured out for many” Mark; Mt.). • Jesus’ death as vicarious or substitutionary sacrifice. • May echo Suffering Servant who suffers vicariously for others (cf. Isa. 53:1-12). • “This is my body…This cup is the new covenant in my blood” (Paul; Luke). • Jesus’ death as covenant sacrifice (cf. Moses on Mt. Sinai; Ex. 24). • Fulfills Jeremiah’s “new covenant” (Jer. 31:31-34). • Prediction of desertion, Peter’s denial, reunion in Galilee. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  10. Gethsemane Mark 14:32-52 & // • Jesus’ prayer of agony (note Abba in v. 36). • Arrest – identified by Judas’ kiss; forbids defense by violence; disciples flee. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  11. Jewish Trial • Mark 14:53-65 & // • Formal trial before Sanhedrin Mark; Mt.) in middle of night is historically questionable. • May have been informal hearing in Caiaphas’ house (Lk.; Jn.). • Charge of threatening to destroy/rebuild temple – doesn’t stick. • Questioned about messianic claims – response ambiguous. • Condemned for blasphemy – capital crime under Jewish law. • Peter’s denial Mark 14:66-72 & // Modern church built on traditional site of Caiaphas’ house. Steps may be first-century. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  12. Roman Trial • Mark 15:1-15 & // • Pontius Pilate (Roman procurator/prefect) resided in Caesarea; in Jerusalem to maintain order during festival. • Charge is insurrection, sedition, claiming to be king of Jews. • Pilate’s reluctance to condemn is strange in light of his normal brutality, insensitivity, quickness to execute. • Release of Barabbas, an actual insurrectionist, is even stranger. • Evangelists tend to shift blame from Rome to Jewish authorities; exonerates Rome and proves Jesus’ innocence. • Maybe Pilate was “toying” with the temple authorities. • Finally yields to chief priests’ pressure and orders crucifixion. • It is historically wrong to blame “the Jews” for Jesus’ death. • Crucified by Rome as suspected rebel between two lēistai (= political revolutionaries). • Jewish involvement was limited to temple authorities, who were allies of Rome. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  13. Crucifixoin • Mark 15:16-41 & // • Cruel, humiliating execution used by Rome to make example of attempted rebels. • Victim is scourged with studded whip; carries cross piece to public place of execution; stripped; fastened to cross; left to die slowly of exposure, exhaustion, suffocation. • Evangelists are very sparing in gruesome details. • Simon of Cyrene carries cross to Golgotha (“place of a skull;” location uncertain). • Crucified between two lēistai (= political revolutionaries). • Emphasize fulfillment of Scripture, esp. psalms of the righteous sufferer (Pss. 22; 69). • Division of clothes, mocking, vinegar to drink (cf. Pss. 22; 69). • Mark’s only saying from cross is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” (15:34; quoting Ps. 22:1). • Ps. 22 is lament of righteous sufferer; begins with cry of dereliction; complains of unjust treatment; begs for deliverance; closes with assurance of God’s vindication. • Dies quickly at mid-afternoon. • Only the women are present; male disciples have fled. • Cosmic signs (darkness; earthquake; tearing of temple veil) give eschatological significance to death. Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..

  14. Jesus’ Burial “Gordon’s Golgotha” Mark 15:42-47 & // • By Joseph of Arimathea, a member of Sanhedrin. • Unusual for crucifixion victim to get proper burial (Crossan). Garden Tomb Sheila E. McGinn, Ph.D..