Elementary STEM Network Meeting Dr. Angela McKeen St. Mary’s Catholic School Dr. Deb Hemler Fairmont State University
Getting a KLEW about STEM Relaying Content Practicing Inquiry
Explore: Which of the following will be attracted to a magnet? • Thumbtacks • Nail • Toothpick • Penny • Pin • Pen • Bits of paper • Paper clips • Aluminum foil 10. Dime 11. Steel wool 12. Leather 13. Glass 14. Cloth 15. Brass paper fastener 16. Rubber bands • Needle • Plaster • magnet
Constructing the KLEW chart • Hot dog fold then shutter fold • Column 1: K- What do you think you KNOW about magnets? (include your predictions) • Column 2: L- What did I LEARN during the activity? • Column 3: E- What EVIDENCE supports what you learned? • Column 4: W- What do you still WANT to know?
Concept Development • Work your way through the What Makes a Magnet Book to Learn about magnetism! • When you confirm something you already knew, place a “check” next to it!
Application • Which of the following minerals would you expect to be magnetic? Explain • Magnetite • Quartz • Felspar • Hematite • Pedagogy: How is the KLEW different than the KWL chart?
Practices (Inquiry) Continuum less • Confirmation • Facilitated Inquiry • Guided Inquiry • Open Inquiry more
What Makes a Magnet? • Lesson Outcomes • describe the properties of magnets (content) • Types, Law of Magnetism, Magnetic fields, Magnetism as a Force • Practice scientific practices or inquiry (process) • construct a KLEW chart (pedagogy) • Experience the integration of trade books in teaching science concepts (pedagogy) • Experience using the Learning Cycle (pedagogy)
FSU: Integrated Science Sequence • Biosphere- biology, chemistry • Exosphere- astronomy, earth science, physics • Geosphere- geology, meteorology, chemistry • Elementary Science Teaching Methods- pedagogy & application
Additional Trade Book Integration Geosphere Exosphere Millions to Measure. HarperCollins (ISBN 0-688-12916-1) by D. Schwartz Sunshine Makes the Season HarperTrophy (0-06-059205-2) Franklyn Branley The Moon Book. Holiday House (ISBN 0-8234-1364-0) by G. Gibbons The Sun. Murrow Junior Books (ISBN 0-688-09236-5) by S. Simon The Magic School Bus Lost in the Solar System. Scholastic (0-590-41429-1) by J. Cole & B. Degan Exploring the Night Sky. Firefly. (ISBN 0-920656-8) by T. Dickinson Born with a Bang:The Universe Tells our Cosmic Story (ISBN 1-58469-032-1) J. Morgan • Fossils Tell of Long Ago by Aliki (ISBN 0-06-445093-7) • The Magic School Bus- Inside the Earth by Joanna Cole and Bruce Degen (ISBN 0-590-40760-0) • The Pebble in My Pocket by Meredith Hooper and Chris Coady (ISBN 0-7112-1076-4) • Planet Earth/ Inside Out by Gail Gibbons (ISBN 0-688-15849-8) • Volcanoes Collins (978-0-06-445189-5) by F. Branley • EarthquakesCollina (0-06-087715-4 Seymour Simon • From Lava to Life by Jennifer Morgan (ISBN 1-58469-042-9)
What are ways in which trade books can be incorporated into a lesson • Engage • Inspire • explore • Teach content • Activity • Graphic organizers • Assessment • ID misconceptions • Accuracy checks
If You Find a Rock. . . written by Peggy Christian, photographs by Barbara Hirsch Lember
But First. . .Pick a Job, Any Job • HEAD – this is the leader of the group; the head makes certain the group is on task and making progress; the head may delegate duties within the group • HEART – this is the peace-keeper of the group; the heart has the ability to stop arguments and change seating arrangements if necessary • HANDS – this is the go-getter of the group; the hands is the only person allowed to get up and retrieve materials for the group • MOUTH –this is the reporter of the group; the mouth reports out data to the class, asks questions for the group, and is the only one allowed to speak for the group as a whole
EXPLORATION • Listen to the following book “If You Find a Rock” • written by Peggy Christian, • photographs by Barbara Hirsch Lember • Open the bag of rocks at your table with your small group • What did you find? • Can you sort your rocks into different categories? • Why did you choose those categories? • Record your findings on a large sheet of paper to share with the large group
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Speckled Striped Chalk Sandy Fossil How do we know? What is the evidence? Think through the Rock Cycle to explain the presence of these physical characteristics.
APPLICATION • You are visiting your family in West Virginia and come across a piece of coal. How would you classify this rock? • Use your understanding of the formation of the three rock types to defend your answer to the class.
5 E Model A Quick Comparison Classic Model
5-E Model (BSCS) KISS!!Or Keep It Simple Stupid Original Learning Cycle Three Stages Exploration Concept Development Application Five Stages (duh!) Engage Explore Explain Expand Evaluate
Engineering the Answer Project-based Learning Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges
Engaging with the Problem • Inspired by The Man Who Made Time Travel (or Longitude) • Read through the PBL that you have been given. • What are the students required to do? • Compare the green and blue challenges.
The Challenge Longitude Project Latitude Project Must determine a way to calculate latitude Build and use an instrument to measure latitude Verify Fairmont’s latitude What if Betelgeuse were the pole star? • Determine a way to calculate longitude • Build and use an instrument to help determine longitude • Verify longitude • Determine location of island given latitude and time readings
Survivor- providing the necessary skills for a PBL • Read the book “Longitude” by DavaSobel throughout the semester • One class period is spent on defining longitude, latitude, and time. • Students use astrolabe to measure the elevation of the moon during an observation project • Work with stars and constellations in StarLab
PBL Problem Statement • The Problem • Is encountered first in the learning model • Is presented as in reality • Allows student to reason and apply knowledge • Needed content is identified and used to guide student learning • skills and knowledge learned are applied to the problem
Essentials of PBL • Team building (include a peer evaluation) • Should be interesting and appropriate • Topic should act as a hook • Use media as sources for society/science issues • Open-ended • Connect to the content you are teaching • Higher level problems which go beyond text
Engineering Design Challenges • A Framework for K-12 Science Education • Incorporate engineering practices in addition to scientific practices • Where do these fall short?
Integrating the “T” in STEM Using technology in designing a challenging application
Investigating the Facts • Eratosthenes (200 BC) • Determined the circumference of the earth: • June 21 in a well in Syene (now Aswan) on Tropic of Cancer the sun reaches bottom of well at noon • North Alexandria- sun shadow is 7.2° • Syene is 5000 stadia from N. Alexandria Eratosthenes
Do the Math!!! • What is the Earth’s circumference? Hint: • What’s a stadia? 1 sta = 185 meters • 360° in a circle! (360° /7.2° = 50 ) • Distance between: 5000 sta (185 m/sta)= 925 km • Earth Circumference: 925 km X 50 = 46,250 km • CLOSE! Actually 40,008 km Extra Credit: Why was he off?
The Librarian Who Measured the Earth by Kathryn Lasky • Using Trade books to clarify content
Investigating the Earth’s circumference using GPS units! Materials • You have a GPS unit • 50 meter tape • Devise a way to determine the circumference of the Earth • Are you as accurate as Eratosthenes was?
The Nature of Science Nature of Science is the values and assumptions inherent to scientific knowledge and the development of scientific knowledge. 1. Science is based on empirical evidence. 2. There is no step-by-step scientific method by which all science is done. 3. Scientific knowledge is tentative but durable 4. Laws and theories are related but distinctly different kinds of scientific knowledge. 5. Science is a creative endeavor. 6. Science has a subjective element. 7. Science is socially and culturally embedded. 8. Science and its methods cannot answer all problems. 9. There is a distinction between observation and inference.
Finding the Science of Poetry, Prose, and Song Why STEM Standards May Not Always Be Enough…
“…science and art are not that far apart. Science is a framework human beings use to try and understand the physical universe. Art is a framework human beings use to understand their place in the cosmos.“ ~ Wilson da Silva, editor of Cosmos Magazine
Science • Based on objective observations • Objectivity creates more reliable “truth” • Values reproducibility • Provides validity and objectivity for everyone • Invokes skepticism The Arts C O P L E M E N T C O M P L E M E N T Synergistic Lens • Values feeling & perception • Values observation & creativity • Rejection of routine & automatic • Allows for the individual within • the greater scheme • Provides rigor & flexibility
The Role of the Arts in Science • Wide-reaching and profoundly transferable cognitive advances in developing social skills and improving academic achievement (Boyes & Reid, 2005, p. 1) • Pedagogical strategies are ideal in expanding the invitation of science education to more children (Gardner, 1993; Howes, 2002; Rosser, 1997; Roychoudhury, Tippins, & Nichols, 1995) • Allows many voices to be heard in the science classroom (Ellsworth, 1989; Hildebrand, 1998)
The Effects of the Arts on Scientific Understanding • Natural curiosity sparked by beauty and the arts was both historically and presently the main pathway for discovery and invention (Smith, 1977) • Significant gains both in core content learning and academic achievement (Catterall, 1995; College Entrance Examination Board, 1996; Goldberg & Bossenmeyer, 1998; Hetland and Winner, 2001; Winner and Cooper, 2000; Winner& Hetland, 2000) • Long-term effects almost immeasurable, improving not just the individual but also the well-being of society (Dewey, 1934; Eisner, 1998, 2002; Goldberg, 1997; Green, 1994, 2002; Hildebrand, 1996)
How Do You Do It IF. . . You think Science and the Arts = Latest Pedagogical Fad YOU DON’T HAVE ENOUGH TIME
Let’s Get Started. . . STEP ONE: With your group, select any poem or poems from the books on your table just because you enjoy it. STEP TWO: Identify the Big Idea/Big Question of your poem STEP THREE: Does it fulfill a science concept you are required to teach? Yes – go to Step Five . . . No – Go to Step Four STEP FOUR: Can you modify the poem’s literal meaning or select a portion of the poem to springboard into a science concept? Yes – go to Step Five . . . StillNo? – Select a better poem or a better group STEP FIVE: Begin brainstorming a hands-on activity for students that will both engage them in the science as well as allow them to make predictions/form a hypothesis
“Hello, Poetry. . . Meet Scientific Practices” • Both have a Big Idea or ask a Big Question • Both engage us making predictions and/or forming hypotheses • Both encourage us to make observations • Our data may have a different format • Our results may lead us on different paths • Our conclusions may look eerily similar • Both will lead us to ask Bigger Questions
3 E Learning Cycle – Quick and Dirty Group Plan • EXPLORATION: • Hands-on/Minds-on activity to engage with the concept; student-centered; pre-assesses prior knowledge; generates predictions or allows the formation of an initial hypothesis • CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT: • Students collect and analyze more data; teacher engages in more explicit instruction of the scientific concept; data comparisons are made; results are shared • APPLICATION: • Students will now apply their understanding of the scientific concept within a new or varied setting; conclusions may be generated and new questions need to be asked
Your Turn. . . • With your group, using your poem as the springboard for the concept, generate a quick and dirty 3 E Learning Cycle Lesson Plan • Can you also now incorporate an Engineering Design or Engineering Process Challenge? • Of course you can
This is Why We Do It. . . • Using aspects of the arts gives teachers three distinct advantages over more traditional means of understanding science: • The arts are transformative • The arts are unifying, • They are both dramatic and compelling • Using aspects of the arts allows more students access to and success within the sciences • If science is truly a tool to cultural capital for marginalized members, teachers of marginalized students have an even greater duty to ensure both equity and access of science within their classrooms
“The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead: his eyes are closed” (attributed to Albert Einstein)
How Did We Do?? Linking activities to the standards