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PBS Intensive Interventions Robert F. Putnam Ph.D. BCBA May Institute September 5, 2005. Goals of Workshop. The participants should be able to describe the purpose and context of intensive services what is and how an intensive team functions

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PBS IntensiveInterventions

Robert F. Putnam Ph.D. BCBA

May Institute

September 5, 2005


goals of workshop
Goals of Workshop
  • The participants should be able to describe
    • the purpose and context of intensive services
    • what is and how an intensive team functions
    • an intensive assessment process and procedures
    • appropriate intensive interventions


putting the pieces together
Putting The Pieces Together
  • Intensive Interventions in Context of PBS
  • Key Features
  • Examples
  • Supporting teams

Key Features


Supporting Teams



Tertiary Prevention:



Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior







Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior


Primary Prevention:


Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students



Individualized, Function-Based Behavior Support Plans

  • Intensive Academic Support
  • School-based Adult Mentors
  • Intensive Social Skills Training
  • Parent Training and Collaboration
  • Multi-Agency Collaboration (Wrap-Around)
  • Alternatives to Suspension and Expulsion


(High Risk Students)

Individual Interventions

1% - 5% of Students


(At-Risk Students)

Individual & Small Group Strategies

5% - 10% of Students

  • Intensive Social Skills Training and Support
  • Self-Management Programs
  • School-Based Adult Mentors (Check-In)
  • Increased Academic Support and Practice
  • Alternatives to School Suspension


(All Students)

School-Wide Systems of Support

80% - 90% of Students

  • Effective Academic Support
  • Teaching Social Skills
  • Teaching School-Wide
  • Expectations
  • Active Supervision & Monitoring
  • in Common Areas
  • Positive Reinforcement for All
  • Firm, Fair, Corrective Discipline
  • Effective Classroom Management


summary of pbis big ideas
Summary of PBIS “BIG IDEAS”

Systems (How things are done)

  • Team based problem solving
  • Data-based decision making
  • Long term sustainability

Data (How decisions are made)

  • On going data collection & use
  • ODR’s (# per day per month, location, behavior, student)
  • Suspension/expulsion, attendance, tardies

Practices (How staff interact with students)

  • Direct teaching of behavioral expectations
  • On-going reinforcement of expected behaviors
  • Functional behavioral assessment



Similarities Across all Three Levels:

  • Team-based decision-making
  • Consensus around proactive strategies
  • Ownership by those closest to kids
  • Data-based decisions to guide interventions



Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports





Staff Behavior





Student Behavior

emphasis on prevention
Emphasis on Prevention
  • Primary
      • Reduce new cases of problem behavior
  • Secondary
      • Reduce current cases of problem behavior
  • Tertiary
      • Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases



Decrease in Percentage of “Frequent Flyers”

Proportion of Student Population Referred


PBS Year 2


Initial PBS phase


Russo & Rey (February, 2002)


Reason for Suspensions

Violent vs. Non-Violent Infractions

MLK Middle School


Crone, D.A., & Horner, R.H. (2003). Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools. New York: Guilford Press



Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports





Staff Behavior





Student Behavior


intensive team
Intensive Team
  • Critical features
    • Possess specialized behavioral skills within their membership
    • Allow and encourage contributions from all their members
    • Have predictable and efficient procedures for doing business and solving problems
    • Have regular opportunities to access building staff, families, and community agencies to communicate and solicit information


intensive team1
Intensive Team
  • Meet the following primary objectives
    • Manage teacher requests for assistance
    • Ensure that teachers and students receive support in a timely and meaningful manner
    • Provide a general forum for discussions and possible solutions for individual student behavioral concerns
    • Organize a collaborative effort to support the teacher (Todd et. al., 1999)


intensive team2
Intensive Team
  • Made up of two teams
    • Core team for the school
    • Action teams for each individual student


intensive team3
Intensive Team
  • Core team
    • School administrator
    • An individual with behavioral expertise
    • Representative sample of the school staff


intensive team4
Intensive Team
  • Principal
    • Active participant
    • Reasons for involvement
      • Courtesy
      • Valuable input
      • Spending authority
      • Administrative influence


intensive team5
Intensive Team
  • Individual with competence in behavioral assessment and intervention
    • Must be a person with expertise in applied behavioral analysis to
      • Guide decision making
      • Assessment
      • Intervention


intensive team6
Intensive Team
  • Individual with competence in behavioral assessment and intervention means
    • Knowledge of behavior theory and application
    • FBA
    • Behavioral interventions
  • Could be a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) or other staff with advanced degree with training and experience in applied behavior analysis


intensive team7
Intensive Team
  • Representative sample of school staff
    • Teachers from grade levels
    • General and special educators
    • Nonteaching staff
      • Paraprofessionals


intensive team8
Intensive Team
  • Performance Roles
    • Conducting FBA interviews and observations
    • Reviewing academic records and work samples
    • Reporting FBA data to the larger group
    • Generating testable hypothesis
    • Designing and implementing, and evaluating and modifying BSPs


intensive team9
Intensive Team
  • Management roles
    • Coordinator/referral liaison
      • Critically important to choose a conscientious, responsible member of the team to act as the referral liaison for the entire team
      • Coordinator should be committed to success of the team
      • Excellent relationships with other school staff


intensive team10
Intensive Team
  • Management roles
    • Coordinator/referral liaison
      • Facilitate the FBA-BSP process
      • Generate an agenda for each meeting (distribute a day in advance
      • The Team would generate tasks and the coordinator would assure someone is responsible
    • Note taker


intensive team11
Intensive Team
  • Coordinator
    • Receive referrals
    • Distribute the referral to one or more core members who will form an Action Team for that student
    • Follow-up on the progress of the Action Team
    • Maintain a copy of the assessment data and records generated by the Action Team


intensive team12
Intensive Team
  • Action team
    • One or two members from the core team
    • Student’s parents
    • Student’s teacher or the person who made the referral
    • Other significant staff or persons in the student’s life
    • Must have an individual with behavioral expertise


intensive team13
Intensive Team
  • Action team
    • If only one team member has expertise in FBA-BSP then this person will lead every Action Team
    • Team members may prefer to lead a team from their particular grade or department
    • Rotate responsibilities


process and responsibilities of core team and action team
Core Team

Initial Meeting (15 minutes)

Take and review referral

Form Action Team

Provide support to Action Team through out process as needed

Process and Responsibilities of Core Team and Action Team

Process Responsibilities


process and responsibilities of core team and action team1
Action Team


Conduct simple FBA (30 minutes)

Conduct full FBA if recommended (90 minutes)

Prepare to report findings

Process and Responsibilities of Core Team and Action Team

Process Responsibilities


intensive team14
Intensive Team
  • Simple FBA interview
    • Make an immediate contact with the teacher
    • Verbal report of the problem behavior
    • Obtain information on the typical setting events, predictors, and consequences of the problem behavior


intensive team15
Intensive Team
  • More than a simple FBA interview is needed if
    • the student is at risk for suspension, expulsion or alternative school placement
    • we are not confident that the testable hypothesis (generated from the FBA) is correct


process and responsibilities of core team and action team2
Action Team

Second Meeting (60- 90 minutes)

Discuss assessment findings

Design BSP

Implement BSP

Process and Responsibilities of Core Team and Action Team

Process Responsibilities


intensive team16
Intensive Team
  • After assessment data is presented the team needs to determine whether
    • they are confident that the testable hypothesis is correct
    • If not correct about the testable hypothesis, would the consequences be severe


process and responsibilities of core team and action team3
Action Team

Third Meeting (30 – 60 minutes)

Evaluate effectiveness of BSP

Modify BSP as necessary

Process and Responsibilities of Core Team and Action Team

Process Responsibilities


intensive team17
Intensive Team
  • At the followup meeting the team decides
    • Were the goals of the behavior support plan achieved
    • Does the behavior support plan need to be modified


process and responsibilities of core team and action team4
Core Team

Support and Follow-Through

Follow progress on identified student

Provide support as necessary

Process and Responsibilities of Core Team and Action Team

Process Responsibilities



Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports





Staff Behavior





Student Behavior


positive behavior support step 1 setting goals
Positive Behavior Support Step 1: Setting Goals
  • Developing a support team
  • Collaboration
  • Identifying broad and specific goals
  • Person-centered planning
  • The family’s role


positive behavior support step 2 gathering information
Positive Behavior SupportStep 2: Gathering Information
  • Understanding the basics about behavior
  • Functional assessment process
  • Data collection
  • The family’s role


step 3 hypothesis development
Step 3. Hypothesis Development
  • A hypothesis statement is an informed, assessment-based explanation of the target behavior.
  • It is an informed guess about the relationship between environmental events or conditions and student’s target behavior.


a sample hypothesis
A Sample Hypothesis
  • When Beverly…
  • (fast trigger) is not engaged with others or when she’s engaged in activities for 15 minutes or longer (especially during lunch or free time)
  • (slow trigger) did not get to sleep before 11 p.m. the previous evening or does not feel well,
  • (the student does) she screams, slaps her face and pulls his hair…
  • (in order to get) to gain access to teacher attention.”


step 4 designing interventions
Step 4. Designing Interventions
  • Proactive: change the environment to make problem behavior unnecessary
  • Educative: teach skills to make the problem behavior inefficient
  • Functional: manage consequences to make problem behavior ineffective
  • Lifestyle: support long-term quality of life outcomes for the student


step 5 monitoring and evaluation of outcomes
Step 5. Monitoring and Evaluationof Outcomes
  • Decreases in problem behavior
  • Increases in positive behavior
  • Achievement of broader goals
  • Durability of behavior change


functional behavioral assessment
Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Functional behavioral assessment is a process for gathering information that can be used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support.


functional behavioral assessment1
Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • The intensity of the assessment matches the complexity of the behavior. That is, if less rigorous and easy to implement assessment procedures produce a confident description of the events that predict and maintain a behavior, there is no reason to use more rigorous and precise procedures.


assumptions about functional behavioral assessment
Assumptions about Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Objective of functional assessment is not just to define and eliminate problem behaviors but to understand the function of those behaviors in order to promote effective alternatives and to create environments and patterns of support that make problem behaviors irrelevant, ineffective, or inefficient


assumptions about functional behavioral assessment1
Assumptions about Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Making problem behaviors





primary outcomes of the functional assessment process
Primary Outcomes of the Functional Assessment Process
  • Description of the problem behaviors, including classes or sequences of behaviors that frequently occur together
  • Identification of the events, times, and situations that predict when the problems will and will not occur across typical daily routines
  • Identification of the consequences that maintain the problem behaviors (i.e.., what functions the behaviors appear to serve for the person)


primary outcomes of the functional assessment process con t
Primary Outcomes of the Functional Assessment Process (Con’t)
  • Development of summary statements/hypotheses that specify the behaviors, specific type of situation in which they occur, and the outcomes/reinforcers maintaining them in that situation
  • Collections of direct observation data that support the summary statements that have been developed


three strategies for collecting functional assessment information
Three Strategies for Collecting Functional Assessment Information
  • Strategy 1: Informant Methods.
    • Talk to the individual and/or to those who know the individual best.
    • Gather assessment information (archival records).
  • Strategy 2: Direct observation.
    • Observe the person in natural conditions over an extended time period.
  • Strategy 3: Functional analysis manipulations.
    • Systematically manipulate potential controlling variables (consequences or structural variables) in analog or natural conditions and observe effects on the person’s behavior.


i informant methods
I. Informant Methods
  • Academic assessment
    • Behavior problems and academic difficulties are often functionally related
      • Students who are frustrated by academic tasks and expectations that are beyond their current skills levels may act out or withdraw to avoid such tasks or to express their feelings
      • Conversely, problems behaviors are often incompatible with academic performance or may result in disciplinary actions


i informant methods1
I. Informant Methods
  • Analysis of Office Discipline Referrals
      • Determine the
        • Behavior
        • Predictor
          • What activity?
          • Where?
          • When?
          • With whom?
        • Consequences


i informant methods2
I. Informant Methods
  • Social Competence assessment
    • Social competence is a general domain referring summative evaluative judgments regarding the adequacy of a student’s performance on social tasks by an informed social agent.
    • Composed of two domains
      • adaptive behavior
      • behavior problems


i informant methods3
I. Informant Methods
  • Social skills are the specific strategies one uses to respond to social living tasks
    • Instruments
      • Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment
      • Social Skills Rating System


walker mcconnell scale of social competence and school adjustment elementary adolescent versions

Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment -Elementary & Adolescent Versions


  • Designed primarily for use as:
    • 1. regular and proactive screening instrument to detect students in need of systematic skills training
    • 2. identification of specific social skills deficits


  • Designed primarily for use:
    • 3. as a tool to evaluate the effects of social skills interventions. It provides an important source of information to support decision making when students are evaluated or referred for specialized services and/or placements. Social skills assessments should be an essential part of any child study team’s evaluation process.


elementary scale
Elementary Scale
  • Consists of 43 positively worded descriptions of social skills, distributed across three subscales, which together sample the adaptive behavior and interpersonal social competence domains described above.
  • Requires approximately 5 to 10 minutes per pupil for administration.
  • Scale items were written in a form appropriate for inclusion as objectives on Individualized Education Plans (IEPs).


elementary version
Elementary Version
  • Three factor-analytically derived subscales
    • Teacher-preferred Social Behavior
    • Peer-preferred Social Behavior
    • School Adjustment


adolescent version
Adolescent Version
  • The adolescent Version contains four factor analytically derived subscales (I.e., Self control, Peer Relations, School Adjustment, and Empathy) and total scale consisting of 53 items.
  • Requires approximately 5 to 10 minutes per pupil for administration.
  • Scale items were written in a form appropriate for inclusion as objectives on Individualized Education Plans (IEPs).


item analysis
Item Analysis
  • Items scored 1 or 2 are potential items for IEPs or to include in systematic social skills programs
  • In using this assessment as part of an evaluation should list:
    • the top ten items as relative student strengths
    • the bottom ten items as areas of skills deficits. Best to elicit parental input for objective selection


use of subscales
Use of Subscales
  • Low scores on Subscale 2 suggests interventions designed to improve peer-related social skills and target student-peer dynamics
  • Low scores on Subscales 1 & 3 suggest the need for social skill interventions to improve adult-related social behavior and adjustment to the demands and expectations of the instructional setting that are primarily controlled by teachers


i informant methods con t
I. Informant Methods (con’t)
  • A good functional assessment places the behavior in a context.
  • Functional assessment is a process for understanding the context (antecedents and consequences) associated with behaviors.


i informant methods4
I. Informant Methods
  • Functional Assessment Interview
    • The first strategy for conducting functional assessment is to talk to the person with the behaviors (if possible) and to those people who have direct contact with and knowledge about the individual.
    • A major goal of any interview procedure is to identify which of the hundreds of events in an environment seem to be linked to the specific behavior of a specific person.


i informant methods5
I. Informant Methods
  • Functional Assessment Interview
    • Simple FBA interview (Functional Behavioral Assessment Interview – Teacher/Staff/Parent (Crone & Horner, 2003)
    • Simple FBA interview (Functional Behavioral Assessment Interview – Student (Crone & Horner, 2003)
    • More intensive FBA interview (O’Neill et al., 1997)


describe the behaviors
Describe the Behaviors
  • To facilitate the operational description of the behaviors.
    • A brief description of the topography or physical movements that are performed.
    • The frequency with which the behavior is performed.
    • The length of time the behavior continues.
    • A description of the intensity of the behavior, which allows the interviewer to record his or her perceptions of the level of danger or serious effects presented by the behavior.


ecological setting events
Ecological/Setting Events
  • Ecological or setting events are those aspects of a person’s environment or daily routines that do not necessarily happen immediately before or after the undesirable behaviors but still affect whether these behaviors are performed.


ecological setting events1
Ecological/Setting Events
  • Types of events
    • Medications
    • Medical or physical problems
    • Sleep cycles
    • Eating routines and diet
    • Daily schedule
      • How predictable
      • Choices
    • Numbers of people


immediate antecedent events
Immediate Antecedent Events
  • What are the (predictors) for occurrences and non-occurrences of the behavior?
  • Ask questions about specific situations in which the problem behaviors happen, including when and where they occur, whom the person is with, and what specific activities are problematic.


immediate antecedent events1
Immediate Antecedent Events
  • Time of day
  • Physical setting
  • People
  • Activity


antecedent events
Antecedent Events
  • Idiosyncratic or very specific situations or events that may be important to the student involved.
    • Particular requests made to the student
    • Having him or her to wait for access to a desired object/activity
    • Asking the student to stop doing something particularly enjoyable


functions of behavior
Functions of behavior
  • Behaviors may serve two major types of functions:
      • To obtain something desirable
      • To avoid or escape something undesirable
    • Behaviors maintained by obtaining desirable things are examples of positive reinforcement; behaviors maintained by escaping or avoiding undesirable things are examples of negative reinforcement.


  • Obtain desired events
    • Attention
    • Activities
    • Tangibles
  • Avoid/escape undesirable events
    • Difficult tasks
    • Attention


efficiency of the behavior
Efficiency of the Behavior
  • Behaviors that are the most efficient are usually performed to achieve an outcome
  • Efficient behaviors are those that:
    • require less physical effort
    • result in quicker and more consistent payoffs
    • produce results quicker


what functional alternative behaviors does the person already know how to do
What Functional Alternative Behaviors Does the Person Already Know How To Do?
  • Important strategy is try to teach appropriate alternate behaviors
  • This information will assist in deciding whether instruction needs to focus on teaching new skills or on trying to prompt and reinforce the skills the person already has


develop summary statements for each major predictor and or consequence
Develop Summary Statements for Each Major Predictor and/or Consequence
  • Summary statements describe three components:
    • a. A situation--setting events and immediate antecedents--in which problem behaviors occur
    • b. The behaviors that are occurring
    • c. The function the behaviors serve, or the reinforcing outcomes they produce, in that situation.


develop summary statements for each major predictor and or consequence1
Develop Summary Statements for Each Major Predictor and/or Consequence
  • Summary statements integrate the information you have gathered with regard to behaviors, antecedents, and consequences that are maintaining the behaviors.
    • Develop summary statements for:
      • a. Each behavior or class of behaviors that appears to serve a particular function
      • b. Each type of particular situation in which that behavior or class of behaviors occurs


examples of summary statements based on interview information
Examples of Summary Statements Based on Interview Information
  • 1. __Immediate situation__ “When Perry is getting little attention in a large group in the classroom,
  • ________ Behavior_________ he is likely to shout profanities and throw things
  • ____Maintaining function_____ to get peer attention.
  • _Distant event (setting event)_ The less attention Perry has received during the day, the more likely this pattern is to occur.”


student directed interview
Student-Directed Interview
  • Interview preparation (Section I)
    • In most cases, the FAI will have been used with the referring staff to identify patterns of the student’s problem behavior before a meeting with the student is scheduled
    • Develop rapport with the student
    • Inform student of the purpose of the interview and stress that he/she be candid


student directed interview1
Student-Directed Interview
  • Section II. Defining the behavior of concern
    • Student should be encouraged to list not only the most problematic behavior but also all behaviors he or she thinks are problematic (“those behaviors that get you in trouble”).


student directed interview2
Student-Directed Interview
  • Section III. Student Daily Schedule Matrix
    • Provides an opportunity for the student to identify times and locations where problem behaviors are most likely.
    • Student Daily Schedule Matrix is presented to the student
      • Times, classes, or activities are identified by the student that the problematic behavior/s occur
      • Student is asked tot rate the difficulty of the context by rating on a scale of 1 (least difficult) to 6 (most difficult).
      • Contexts rated at 4 or above are targeted for further interview.


direct observation
Direct Observation
  • Anecdotal recording
  • ABC recording
  • Frequency recording
  • Interval recording
  • Functional Behavior Assessment Observation Form (O’Neill et al., 1997)


develop a diagram describing the problem behavior situations
Develop A Diagram Describing The Problem Behavior Situations
  • Draw a diagram that outlines the problem behavior situations including:
    • the relevant setting events
    • the relevant predictors
    • the problem behaviors
    • the consequences maintaining the behaviors
    • the desired appropriate behaviors
    • alternative behaviors that the student could perform to achieve the same outcome as the problem behaviors



Setting Predictors

Events (Immediate


Preferred/Desired Behavior

Problem Behaviors




Replacement Behaviors



Completes work and going to the bathroom with appropriate voice, keeping hands, feet, and objects to self.

Staff verbal praise

Receive preferred tangible

Behavior Outburst: Any combination or multiple occurrences of the following behaviors: laughing or screaming, tensing up, squeezing his hands or face, tearing objects, grabbing materials or people or pulling his own hair.

Escapes/avoids non-preferred activity

Access to staff attention /

Asks for break, tangible, to go to the bathroom, staff attention

  • Has to wait
  • Transitions
  • Lack of staff attention
  • Cue to end a preferred activity



Using hands appropriately in completing activities

Staff verbal praise

Receive preferred tangible

Access to staff attention

Escapes/avoids non-preferred activity

Grabbing others: Using hands to squeeze other people’s body parts or objects that they are wearing

Asks to keep the preferred item /

Asks for a break

  • Glasses, necklaces, jewelry
  • Proximity to others
  • Losing a preferred item
  • Tabletop/ fine motor activities



Staff verbal praise

Receive preferred tangible

Remaining in assigned area seat

Out of seat: Unauthorized getting up from chair- (Buttocks leaving the base of the chair)

Out of area: Unauthorized leaving of assigned area (more than three feet)

Access to staff attention

Access to preferred events

Asks for attention/preferred items

  • Staff not in proximity
  • to Michael
  • Group work
  • Unstructured activity
  • Independent leisure activity
  • Lack of attention
  • Lunch time


behavior support plans
Behavior Support Plans
  • Development
  • Preparation (written document)
  • Implementation


four considerations for building behavior support plans
Four Considerations for Building Behavior Support Plans
  • Four broad themes are important in the design of behavioral support plans: The plans should
    • Indicate how the educational staff, or family will change and not just focus on how the student of concern will change
    • Be directly based on the functional assessment information


four considerations for building behavior support plans1
Four Considerations for Building Behavior Support Plans
  • The behavior support plan should be:
    • Technically sound - that is, consistent with the principles and laws of human behavior
    • A good fit with the values, resources, and skills of the people responsible for implementation


make the problem behaviors irrelevant
Make the Problem Behaviors Irrelevant
  • Developers of the plan should identify those situations (stimulus conditions) that set the occasion for problem behaviors and organize the environment to reduce the likelihood that these conditions are encountered


make the problem behaviors irrelevant1
Make the Problem Behaviors Irrelevant
  • Making the problem behavior irrelevant typically involves structural changes:
    • Altering the physical settings,
    • Enriching the environment,
    • Improving the activities or curriculum,
    • Increasing predictability and
    • Choice options available to the person.


make the problem behaviors inefficient
Make the Problem Behaviors Inefficient
  • The efficiency of a behavior refers to the combined effects of
    • The physical effort required for a person to perform the behavior
    • The number of times the person must perform the behavior before he or she is reinforced (the schedule of reinforcement)
    • The time delay between the first problem behavior and reinforcement


make the problem behaviors inefficient1
Make the Problem Behaviors Inefficient
  • The support plan should define an alternative, socially appropriate, and more efficient way for the person to achieve the same reward.


make the problem behaviors ineffective
Make the Problem Behaviors Ineffective
  • Behavior support plans should make problem behaviors ineffective ways of obtaining the functional outcome. Even when the behavior support plan includes the teaching of new, more efficient alternative skills, efforts should be made to extinguish the problem behavior.






Replacement Behaviors

Setting Predictors

Events (Immediate


Preferred/Desired Behavior

Problem Behaviors


design of the behavior support plan
Design of the Behavior Support Plan
  • Components
    • Target behaviors
      • Behaviors to increase
      • Behaviors to decrease
    • Functional assessment summary statements/diagrams
    • Predictor strategies
    • Teaching strategies
    • Consequence strategies
    • Monitoring and evaluation


determine the target behavior s
Target behaviors should be:

Most importantly - operationally defined

Listed as a priority on the IEP

Most problematic (what’s driving staff/parent’s crazy)

Places staff/students at risk

Identified on social skills assessment

Determine the Target Behavior/s


behavior support plan
Behavior Support Plan
  • Behaviors to increase
    • List desired and incompatible behaviors
  • Behaviors to decrease
    • Operational definitions


predictor strategies
Predictor Strategies
  • Setting event interventions
      • Medications
      • Medical or physical conditions
      • Sleep patterns
      • Eating routines and diet


predictor strategies1
Predictor Strategies
  • Antecedent
    • Academic modifications
    • Visual presentation of expectations
    • Transitional warnings
    • Explicit instructions
    • Modification of presentation of demands
    • Breaks incorporated into work periods
    • Choices
    • Modeling
    • Interspersal of preferred & non-preferred activities


predictor strategies2
Predictor Strategies
  • Antecedent
    • Pre-teaching
    • Preview materials
    • Visual schedule
    • Preferred seating (limited distracters)
    • Scheduled activities (limit downtime)
    • Reminders what can be earned if engaged in appropriate behavior
    • Reminders to use replacement behaviors in challenging situations


predictor interventions
Is working in his classroom

Is eating snack or lunch

Has to wait for lunch

Will be transitioning

Is in group work, unstructured or independent leisure activity

Provide instruction at his appropriate level to minimize error corrections

Provide a warning to indicate when snack or lunch will be ending

Keep food out of his sight where possible when not needed

Predictor Interventions


predictor interventions1
Is working in his classroom

Is eating snack or lunch

Has to wait for lunch

Will be transitioning

Is in group work, unstructured or independent leisure activity

Use a mini-schedule visual to remind Michael of the activities to be completed before he can have lunch

Prepare Michael for transitions by giving him both visual and verbal warnings

Provide reminders of what Michael can earn if he keeps his hands and feet to himself and remains in his assigned area

Remind Michael of how he can obtain staff attention appropriately

Predictor Interventions


teaching strategies
Teaching Strategies
  • Requesting breaks
  • Requesting attention from staff
  • Requesting attention from peers
  • Requesting help


teaching strategies1
Teaching Strategies
  • Asking for staff attention
  • Asking for help
  • Requesting a break
  • Requesting preferred items


consequence strategies
Consequence strategies
  • Self-monitoring
  • DRA (Differential Reinforcement of Alternative behaviors)
  • Planning ignoring
  • Guided compliance


consequence strategies1
Consequence strategies
  • DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior)
  • Ignore and redirect
  • Block and redirect
  • Reinforcement of desired behavior (on task/work completion)


consequence strategies2
Michael complies with staff directions and requests

Provide Michael frequent verbal praise, and

Provide Michael a reinforcement menu intermittently

Consequence strategies


consequence strategies3
Michael displays the absence of a behavior outburst      

Utilize differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) once per fifteen minutes

Remind what he is earning for the time

Set a timer for the 15 minutes

If at the end of the 15 minute period he has not engaged in the targeted behavior he should be reinforced from the menu below

Consequence strategies


wrap around services
Wrap Around Services

Wrap around team works to identify the underlying needs, interests, and limitations of families and service providers, and to develop a plan that addresses these interests using natural, community supports with wherever possible the identification of significant persons in the student life.


wraparound teams
Wraparound Teams
  • Members
    • Families
    • Natural support providers (such as friends, relatives and those individuals with positive relationships with the student)
    • Professionals from schools and other agencies such as mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice.


wraparound teams1
Wraparound Teams
  • Wraparound teams develop comprehensive plans that blend perspectives and address needs of families, school personnel, and other service providers. They also inventory, coordinate, and, if necessary, create supports, services, and interventions to address agreed upon needs of the youth and primary caregivers (i.e., families, teachers) across home, school, and community.
  • Combining natural supports (e.g. childcare, transportation, mentors, parent-to-parent support) with traditional interventions (e.g. positive behavior interventions, teaching social skills, reading instruction, therapy) can lead to more effective outcomes.


wraparound services
Wraparound Services
  • Wraparound is not a service but is a defined process for developing teams who create comprehensive plans with these children and their families.
  • The team-based, family-centered wraparound process is recommended for all students with chronic and intensive emotional/behavior problems that warrant a comprehensive plan that crosses home, school, and community.
  • A wraparound approach can ensure that the efforts of families, teachers, other caregivers, and service providers

are linked through one consistently implemented, carefully monitored service plan, and that the family has a strong voice in creating and implementing the plan.


wraparound services1
Wraparound Services
  • Family/student voice and interagency collaboration ensures that supports for families, teachers, and other caregivers are an essential part of these plans.
  • Careful analysis of unique needs in life domains such as safety, medical, social, psychological, basic needs, and living environment drive the planning process.