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A SPREP Review of Approaches to the State of the Environment in the Pacific

A SPREP Review of Approaches to the State of the Environment in the Pacific UNEP GOE-IEA Regional Workshop, Thailand, ‘08 Review Goal, Objective & Outcomes Goal: TO IMPROVE SOE APPROACHES IN THE PACIFIC Objective: TO IDENTIFY PRIORITIES & DIRECTION FOR CAPACITY BUILDING Outcomes:

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A SPREP Review of Approaches to the State of the Environment in the Pacific

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  1. A SPREP Review of Approaches to the State of the Environment in the Pacific UNEP GOE-IEA Regional Workshop, Thailand, ‘08


  3. Countries:SPREP Member Countries: Cook Is, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Is, FSM, Nauru, Niue, Palau, PNG, Samoa, Solomon Is, Tonga, Tokelau, Tuvalu & Vanuatu. Review Levels:International, Regional, National & Local. Period Under Review:1980 – 2007. Specific Country Case Studies:Fiji, Samoa & Kiribati Review Parameters

  4. Review of Relevant References:SPREP IRC/Registry, other IGOs (USP, SPC, SOPAC & UNEP) and SPREP Member Countries Face-to-face & Email Consultations:with staff of SPREP, other CROP Agencies – USP, SPC, SOPAC, UNDP, CI, WCS, Birdlife International, & IUCN Oceania – UNEP, ESCAP, ADB and key national governmental, non-governmental and private organisations in Fiji, Kiribati & Samoa Country Visits: Samoa, Fiji & Kiribati Review Methodology & Information Sources

  5. Historical perspective on the evolution of Environmental Assessments & Reporting (SoE) in the Pacific. Environment Assessments & Reporting Landscape – Global, Regional & National Overview of SOE & Other Reporting by the SPREP & Member Countries Key Observations on Existing Assessments & Reporting Approaches Recommendations Opportunities for the Way forward Proposed Way Forward for SPREP the Organisation Presentation of Review Findings & Recommendations

  6. UN–MEAs, Conferences, MDGs, etc. • Mandates of UNAgencies – UNEP, ESCAP, etc • Regional Treaties & Plans, CROPs mandates • National Policies 1980 1990 2000 1st Generation of SOE Reports – working docs for the SPREP Action Plan in 1982 2nd Generation of SOE Reports – stock taking as part of the NEMS 1st Generation of Reports for MEAs & Stock Taking for National Environment Frameworks – NBSAP, NAPA, NIP, etc. 1-1. Evolution of the State of Environment Assessments & Reporting in the last Quarter Century [1980-2005] in the Pacific Reporting Frameworks: Reporting Requirements: SOERs & Others

  7. UN-MEAs, MDGs, etc. • Mandates of UNAgencies – UNEP, ESCAP, etc Research & Monitoring Frameworks • Regional Treaties & Plans, CROPs mandates • National Plans 1990 1980 2000 2nd Generation of research – key baseline ecological & geological surveys in ‘80s to the ‘90s and continuing to ’00. 3rd Generation of research & monitoring – measurements of project/programme performance & impacts from the ‘80s onwards. • Existing & Emerging Monitoring (Indicator) Systems: • Environment Assessments & Reporting Systems – SOEs, MEAs, etc. • Environment Sustainable Index (ESI) • Environment Vulnerability Index (EVI) • Pacific Action Strategy for Nature Conservation M&E System (AS-M&E), ETC. Comparisons of ’80s, ’90s, & ’00s SOEs indicate changes in longer time periods (decades, centuries, etc.) 4th Generation of research & monitoring – integrated environment measurements (relatively new development) Indicator Systems if regularly updated with data and data analysis can provide regular updates of the state of the environment / its components 1-2 Evolution of Environmental Research & Monitoring in the Pacific in the last Quarter Century (1980-2005) 1st Generation of research – scientific works of the 19th century to 20th century and weather/climate data from the 19th century Research & Monitoring Development

  8. 2 - 3: National Environmental Assessments & Reporting Landscape • PROCESSES • Global Frameworks: • National Reports (UNCEDs & MEAs) • Submissions to other UN Agencies’ Reports • Regional Frameworks: • Country Profiles – SPREP MTGs • Strategies – RT Working Group Reports • National Programmes: • SOEs • Strategies: NBSAP, NIP, NAPA, etc. • Sector Policy Reports • Etc. • National Agencies Mandates: • Annual Reports • REPORTING • SCHEDULES • Global Frameworks: Relevant Schedules • Regional Frameworks: Relevant Schedules • Regional Plans / Strategies: • Nature Conservation – Annual/5 Year • Climate Change – Annual/None • Solid Waste Management – Annual/5 Year • Regional Agencies’ Mandates • Annual • MAIN • FRAMEWORKS • Global Frameworks • Regional Frameworks • National Programmes • National Agencies’ Mandates Potential Implementation Start at the Local Level

  9. Maximum Number of Reports Required from SPREP Member Countries 1980 1990 2000 National UNCCD Reports (1st, 2nd& 3rd) 3 National CBD Reports (1st, 2nd & 3rd) National State of the Environment Reporting 3 National UNFCCC Reports (1st, 2nd, & 3rd) 3-1. Overview of SOE & MEA Reporting Achieved by SPREP’s Member Countries in the Last 25 Years Progress Produced by National Stakeholders with assistance of International/Local Experts Produced by International/ Local Experts under guidance of National Stakeholders Produced by International Experts

  10. General snapshots of the state of affairs at the time of reporting Largely descriptive with few quantitative & qualitative trends analysis Largely commissioned in response to global & regional processes and have provided/used to provide baselines for grounding new policy frameworks & project formulation Lack policy & legal basis Weak access to and use of potential resources for data monitoring & data analysis 3-2. Overview of the SOE & MEA reporting achieved by SPREP’s Member Countries in the last 25 years Quality & Value

  11. 4.1 Driven & Govern by Global Frameworks (Top-Down Approach) 4.2 Requirements have Expanded Beyond Capacities of Pacific Island Countries Governments 4.3 Weak Coordination & Collaboration 4.4 Weakly linked to National Economic Planning Processes 4.5 Limited grounding on Reliable Scientific Quantitative Data & Data Analysis (Quantitative & Qualitative) 4. Key Observations on Existing Assessments & Reporting Approaches

  12. Global Organisations Global & Regional Reporting Requirements Regional Organisations PICs National Governance Global & Regional Financial & Technical Accessing Requirements Global & Regioanal Negotiation Requirements Support Services for their Countries’ Local Communities Local Governance 4: Requirements have Expanded Beyond theCountries Current Capacities INTERNATIONAL GOVERNANCE Global & regional organisations developing services to help countries are primarily responsible with the collection & analysis of information/data on the conditions of the global & regional environments Its difficult for governments to acquire & maintain technical specialists needed for all areas, that its best to have generalists who can cover wide ranges of subjects reasonably well. The development of local communities’ environmental monitoring, assessment & reporting has parely started.

  13. Scale down, streamline & harmonize Environment Assessments & Reporting Requirements Integrate Environment Assessment & Reporting to Over-arching Regional, National & Local Development Planning Frameworks Develop Effective Long-term Monitoring, Assessments & Reporting Systems Develop Long-term Individual & Institutional Capacity Building Processes & Programmes at National & Local Levels Strengthen Regional information/data monitoring & assessment services 5. Recommendations

  14. Scale down …Trial of Streamline Reporting to Biodiversity-MEAs Integrate …Emerging Work For Environmental Indicators in National Sustainable Development Strategies & Pacific Plan and currently developed & tested global assessments processes Develop Effective Environmental Assessment & Reporting…Emerging Framework Processes, e.g. UNEP GEO-IEA, Regional Governance Programmes (USP, FSPI, etc.) Long-term Capacity Building at National & Local Levels…Emerging de-centralization of national governance to local governance, UNEP-EC (SPREP) Programme of Capacity Building for MEAs in ACP Countries, etc. Strengthen Regional Services…Regional Plans, experience & information holdings of regional organisations (E.g. SPREP-IRC), and emerging environmental indicator monitoring programmes (E.g. SPREP-SOEs & Country Profiles, SOPAC-EVI, & SPC-PRISM) 6. Opportunities for the Way Forward

  15. Conceptual Understanding of the Global Development Context For Building Environmental Assessments & Reporting Capacities Key Areas for Capacity building interventions Institutions For the last 50 yrs (recent 25-30 yrs for the Pacific experience) was reactionary vision and institutional framework setting to address global issues was the emphasis (Agenda 21) The emphasis now is on individual initiatives effectively shaped & consolidated through efficient management tools s/a monitoring, assessessment & reporting that will provide real experience to transform frameworks into pro-active drivers of real sustainability into the future Global Society’s Vision, Aspirations & Values (SCENARIOS) Quality of the Environment & Quality of Environmental Governance / Management (SOE) Processes, Structures & Capacities for Intergrating Environment & Development Regional National/Local Processes, Structures & Capacities for Environment Monitoring, Assessment & Reporting Outcomes & Impacts (CHANGES) Interventions & Commitments (CAPACITIES) Individual 6-1. Opportunities For the Way Forward

  16. Diagram 1: There is inconsistency between community ownership and use of resources and the resulting need for capacity to make and implement sustainable resource management decisions (left hand diagram) and the Government as the source of both development assistance and decisions related to resource planning and utilization (right hand diagram) 6-2. Opportunities For the Way Forward…Capacity Building

  17. Strengthen environmental assessments & reporting to contribute effectively and substantially to shaping national and local environment & development governance and to become a strong feature of Pacific Island cultures. Identify common set of environmental parameters relevant to all major reporting requirements – MEAs, UNEP GEO, MDGs (Goal 7), SPREP Programmes (Country Profiles) & National Programmes – COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SETS & INDICATORS Develop simple and practical monitoring, assessments & reporting programmes to regularly collect data & carry out measurements – NATIONAL INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT MONITORING & REPORTING PROGRAMMES Integrate assessments & reporting into national policies and legislations – REGULAR UPDATES OF VITAL ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS, GRAPHS, for national & local planning purpose, etc. Strengthen SPREP’s integrated environmental monitoring & assessment capabilities – FUNCTIONING REGIONAL NTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT & REPORTING PROGRAMME Assist negotiation to harmonise reporting to global reporting obligations Assist Development of functioning National Monitoring & Assessment Programmes Assist Long-term Capacity Building Processes (national & local) Establish within its Programmes Regional Integrated Environmental Monitoring & Assessment Capabilities 7. Proposed Strategy

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