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the history of televison 3 5 09

The HISTORY of TELEVISON3/5/09

1931: According to Business Week, Television Broadcasters conceded "that interest in their efforts is confined almost entirely to the experimenter-the young man of mechanical bent whose principal interest is in how television works rather than in the quality of images received.”

the basis of television aka visual wireless
THE BASIS of TELEVISION aka “VISUAL WIRELESS”
  • TV IS BOTH A TECHNOLOGICAL&COMMUNICATION PLATFORM
  • TELEVISON: COMMUNICATION SYSTEM & INDUSTRY (HOLLYWOOD)
  • TELEVISON DELIVERS all the MAJOR FUNCTIONS of COMMUNICATION, ALTHOUGH TODAY, TV is MOST OFTEN SEEN AS MEDIUM OF ENTERTAINMENT
tv a medium born in controversy
TV: A MEDIUM BORN IN CONTROVERSY
  • WHO ACTUALLY INVENTED TV??
  • TELEVISION wasNOT created by a single inventor. Rather MANY people working together and alone over the years, contributed to theINVENTION of television.
  • TWO distinct paths at the center of TV: MECHANICALvs. ELECTRONIC
  • ELECTRONICSYSTEMS worked betterREPLACED MECHANICAL
the mechanical evolution of television
THE MECHANICALEVOLUTION OF TELEVISION
  • 1884: PAUL NIPKOW INVENTS a ROTATING DISKTRASMITSpictures over wire. Also, in this year, NIPKOW PATENTS the “Electrical Telescope”  BASIS of TV thru the 1920’s
  • NIPKOW: 1st PERSON to discover television’s SCANNING principle
  • TODAY: Nipkow’s scanning concept accomplished by ELECTRONIC means rather than MECHANICAL
mechanical technology s legacy on television
Mechanical Technology’s Legacy on Television
  • The Nipkow Disk1STtechnological discoveryallowing pictures/images to travel
  • Nipkow’s Disk: CENTRAL TECHNOLOGY for experimentation & development in television wave (transmission)
  • Another Important Mechanical Inventor: Guglielmo Marconi eliminated sound’s dependence on wires, enabling sound on airwaves
  • Mechanical Television Set: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59_-Lj8uSO4&feature=related
  • Pre-Marconi TV Sets: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyvTNr49_2c&feature=related or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvRxmIWBibQ&feature=related
modern inventors work to fix mechanical s poor quality
Modern Inventors Work to Fix Mechanical’s Poor Quality
  • Low Image Quality a result of: Stripes caused by the plastic diffusing material &Camera had difficulty focusing on the plane of the disc
evolution of television an electronic system
EVOLUTION OF TELEVISION: AN ELECTRONIC SYSTEM
  • 1927: 1st TV PATENT PHILO T. FARNSWORTH: first inventor to transmit a television image ( a dollar sign$$)
  • Farnsworth develops a dissector tube  uses LECTRONIC SCANNER to reproduce an ELECTRONIC IMAGE much MORE CLEARLY than NIPKOW’S Mechanical Scanner.
  • 1930: Farnsworth PATENTS his ELECTRONIC SCANNER
  • Farnsworth’s Invention: SIGNIFICANT advance over MECHANICAL systems
transformation to the electronic medium
TRANSFORMATION to the ELECTRONIC MEDIUM
  • POST WWI: VLADIMIR K. ZWORKYIN, developed an ALL-ELECTRONIC system for TRANSORMING a VISUAL image  into an ELECRONIC signal
  • As Zworkyin’s ELECTRONIC signal reached the Television Receive  Transformed into a VISUAL image for the viewer
fdr from fireside chats to television
FDR: From Fireside Chats to Television
  • As one of the first Presidents to fully utilize the media (FDR’s Fireside Chats), Franklin D. Roosevelt launches Television
early days of tv the medium as we know it
Early Days of TV: The Medium As We Know It
  • 1939: Television Debuts at World’s Fair (New York City)~ RCA displays 5” & 9” TV Sets  $200-$600
  • 1939 World’s Fair: NBC television’s commercial debut opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (the 1ST U.S. President to appear on TV)
  • RCA: Television 1939: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHnamytBGaY
  • 1939 World Fair 1939: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fP4t3bte30
wwii holds back television
WWII: Holds Back Television
  • 1941: Medium all set to take off FederalGovernment develops procedures for awarding licenses to TV stations
  • DECEMBER 1941: JAPANESE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR.WAR monopolizes attention of entire country
  • WWII: ALL ELECTRONIC MANUFACTURERS HALT PRODUCING EQUIPMENT
  • 1945:RESUME PRODUCTION
expansion of the medium
EXPANSIONof the MEDIUM
  • “By the late 1940s, television began its conquest of America.” ~Eric Barnouw
  • POST WWII: TV STATIONS QUICKLY ESTABLISHED IN MAJOR CITIES
  • 1946:SALE of home receivers begins
  • The Original Television Networks: CBS & NBC
  • Network: Collection of TV/RADIO stations that offer programs, simultaneously, throughout the country
early television only for the wealthy
Early Television~ Only for the Wealthy
  • PROBLEM with Early Television  SETS WERE TOO EXPENSIVE FOR MASS CONSUMPTION!
  • 1947: A 7’’ TV was $400 MORE than a month’s wage for blue-collar families
  • TV QUICKLY BECAME A SYMBOL OF AFFLUENCE
  • ON WELFARE WITH A TELEVISION? MORAL OUTRAGE!
popularizing the medium
Popularizing the Medium
  • 1948: Television became central features in both _______ & ________
  • People would gather around the local tavern new medium becomes more accessible and desirable 
  • Pubs/Bars & Tavernsimportant means of popularizing television for the masses
the explosion of television
The Explosion of Television
  • 1950: Less than 10% American Homes have a TV Set
  • 1960: 90% have TV Receiver
  • 1980: nearly 100%
  • QUESTION: WHAT EXPLAINS THE ENOURMOUS GROWTH OF TELEVISION?
television s rise diffusion of innovations theory
Television’s Rise: Diffusion of Innovations Theory

A Scaled-Down Version of DIT

  • DIFFUSION: How new ideas & technology are communicated throughout society
  • Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT): How television (technology) is adopted
  • Diffusion of an “Innovation”  Occurs through Interpersonal Communication & the Media
  • TV: Major vehicle of ideas, opinions, products, technologies in our country
how do we determine if we should adopt this innovation
How Do We Determine If We Should Adopt this Innovation?
  • PROPENSITY TO ADOPT INNOVATION VARIES: IS IT VALUABLE?
  • Relative Advantage:TV better than radio?
  • Compatibility: Consistent with existing values & past experiences of adopters?
  • Complexity: Difficult to understand?
  • Trialability: Can we experiment?
  • Observability:Does it improve people’s lives?
how does the dit cycle work
How Does the DIT CYCLE Work?
  • It’s created
  • People sell it
  • Some people buy it (Early Adopters)
  • They talk about it
  • We buy it (Opinion Followers)
  • CRITICAL MASS: When 15-20% of the population buys innovation  Mass Production=$$$ goes Down
categories of adoption which one do you fall under
CATEGORIES of ADOPTION: Which One Do You Fall Under?
  • INNOVATOR:CAN COPE WITH UNCERTAINTY
  • EARLY ADOPTERS:ROLE MODEL
  • EARLY MAJORITY:RARELY LEADERS
  • LATE MAJORITY:PRESSURED BY PEERS
  • LAGGARDS:LIMITED RESOURCES

 Characteristics significant to advertisers when creating a marketing plan

what about the big freeze
What About The Big Freeze?
  • Will begin with the “The Big Freeze” (1948-1952) NEXT LECTURE: 3/17
  • HAPPY SPRING BREAK EVERYONE!! 
  • NOW:Neatly stack your Engagement Activities up front on the stage, thanks! 