The HISTORY of TELEVISON3/5/09 1931: According to Business Week, Television Broadcasters conceded "that interest in their efforts is confined almost entirely to the experimenter-the young man of mechanical bent whose principal interest is in how television works rather than in the quality of images received.”
THE BASIS of TELEVISION aka “VISUAL WIRELESS” • TV IS BOTH A TECHNOLOGICAL&COMMUNICATION PLATFORM • TELEVISON: COMMUNICATION SYSTEM & INDUSTRY (HOLLYWOOD) • TELEVISON DELIVERS all the MAJOR FUNCTIONS of COMMUNICATION, ALTHOUGH TODAY, TV is MOST OFTEN SEEN AS MEDIUM OF ENTERTAINMENT
TV: A MEDIUM BORN IN CONTROVERSY • WHO ACTUALLY INVENTED TV?? • TELEVISION wasNOT created by a single inventor. Rather MANY people working together and alone over the years, contributed to theINVENTION of television. • TWO distinct paths at the center of TV: MECHANICALvs. ELECTRONIC • ELECTRONICSYSTEMS worked betterREPLACED MECHANICAL
THE MECHANICALEVOLUTION OF TELEVISION • 1884: PAUL NIPKOW INVENTS a ROTATING DISKTRASMITSpictures over wire. Also, in this year, NIPKOW PATENTS the “Electrical Telescope” BASIS of TV thru the 1920’s • NIPKOW: 1st PERSON to discover television’s SCANNING principle • TODAY: Nipkow’s scanning concept accomplished by ELECTRONIC means rather than MECHANICAL
Mechanical Technology’s Legacy on Television • The Nipkow Disk1STtechnological discoveryallowing pictures/images to travel • Nipkow’s Disk: CENTRAL TECHNOLOGY for experimentation & development in television wave (transmission) • Another Important Mechanical Inventor: Guglielmo Marconi eliminated sound’s dependence on wires, enabling sound on airwaves • Mechanical Television Set: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59_-Lj8uSO4&feature=related • Pre-Marconi TV Sets: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyvTNr49_2c&feature=related or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvRxmIWBibQ&feature=related
Modern Inventors Work to Fix Mechanical’s Poor Quality • Low Image Quality a result of: Stripes caused by the plastic diffusing material &Camera had difficulty focusing on the plane of the disc
EVOLUTION OF TELEVISION: AN ELECTRONIC SYSTEM • 1927: 1st TV PATENT PHILO T. FARNSWORTH: first inventor to transmit a television image ( a dollar sign$$) • Farnsworth develops a dissector tube uses LECTRONIC SCANNER to reproduce an ELECTRONIC IMAGE much MORE CLEARLY than NIPKOW’S Mechanical Scanner. • 1930: Farnsworth PATENTS his ELECTRONIC SCANNER • Farnsworth’s Invention: SIGNIFICANT advance over MECHANICAL systems
TRANSFORMATION to the ELECTRONIC MEDIUM • POST WWI: VLADIMIR K. ZWORKYIN, developed an ALL-ELECTRONIC system for TRANSORMING a VISUAL image into an ELECRONIC signal • As Zworkyin’s ELECTRONIC signal reached the Television Receive Transformed into a VISUAL image for the viewer
FDR: From Fireside Chats to Television • As one of the first Presidents to fully utilize the media (FDR’s Fireside Chats), Franklin D. Roosevelt launches Television
Early Days of TV: The Medium As We Know It • 1939: Television Debuts at World’s Fair (New York City)~ RCA displays 5” & 9” TV Sets $200-$600 • 1939 World’s Fair: NBC television’s commercial debut opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (the 1ST U.S. President to appear on TV) • RCA: Television 1939: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHnamytBGaY • 1939 World Fair 1939: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fP4t3bte30
WWII: Holds Back Television • 1941: Medium all set to take off FederalGovernment develops procedures for awarding licenses to TV stations • DECEMBER 1941: JAPANESE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR.WAR monopolizes attention of entire country • WWII: ALL ELECTRONIC MANUFACTURERS HALT PRODUCING EQUIPMENT • 1945:RESUME PRODUCTION
EXPANSIONof the MEDIUM • “By the late 1940s, television began its conquest of America.” ~Eric Barnouw • POST WWII: TV STATIONS QUICKLY ESTABLISHED IN MAJOR CITIES • 1946:SALE of home receivers begins • The Original Television Networks: CBS & NBC • Network: Collection of TV/RADIO stations that offer programs, simultaneously, throughout the country
Early Television~ Only for the Wealthy • PROBLEM with Early Television SETS WERE TOO EXPENSIVE FOR MASS CONSUMPTION! • 1947: A 7’’ TV was $400 MORE than a month’s wage for blue-collar families • TV QUICKLY BECAME A SYMBOL OF AFFLUENCE • ON WELFARE WITH A TELEVISION? MORAL OUTRAGE!
Popularizing the Medium • 1948: Television became central features in both _______ & ________ • People would gather around the local tavern new medium becomes more accessible and desirable • Pubs/Bars & Tavernsimportant means of popularizing television for the masses
The Explosion of Television • 1950: Less than 10% American Homes have a TV Set • 1960: 90% have TV Receiver • 1980: nearly 100% • QUESTION: WHAT EXPLAINS THE ENOURMOUS GROWTH OF TELEVISION?
Television’s Rise: Diffusion of Innovations Theory A Scaled-Down Version of DIT • DIFFUSION: How new ideas & technology are communicated throughout society • Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT): How television (technology) is adopted • Diffusion of an “Innovation” Occurs through Interpersonal Communication & the Media • TV: Major vehicle of ideas, opinions, products, technologies in our country
How Do We Determine If We Should Adopt this Innovation? • PROPENSITY TO ADOPT INNOVATION VARIES: IS IT VALUABLE? • Relative Advantage:TV better than radio? • Compatibility: Consistent with existing values & past experiences of adopters? • Complexity: Difficult to understand? • Trialability: Can we experiment? • Observability:Does it improve people’s lives?
How Does the DIT CYCLE Work? • It’s created • People sell it • Some people buy it (Early Adopters) • They talk about it • We buy it (Opinion Followers) • CRITICAL MASS: When 15-20% of the population buys innovation Mass Production=$$$ goes Down
(1) Innovators,(2) Early Adopters,(3) Early Majority,(4) Late Majority, and(5) Laggards.
CATEGORIES of ADOPTION: Which One Do You Fall Under? • INNOVATOR:CAN COPE WITH UNCERTAINTY • EARLY ADOPTERS:ROLE MODEL • EARLY MAJORITY:RARELY LEADERS • LATE MAJORITY:PRESSURED BY PEERS • LAGGARDS:LIMITED RESOURCES Characteristics significant to advertisers when creating a marketing plan
What About The Big Freeze? • Will begin with the “The Big Freeze” (1948-1952) NEXT LECTURE: 3/17 • HAPPY SPRING BREAK EVERYONE!! • NOW:Neatly stack your Engagement Activities up front on the stage, thanks!