HUN 4296 Nutrition & Health IssuesWeek 1 Day 1 Part 1Foundations to sort Facts from Fads Based on Chapter 1: Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney
What makes nutrition a fertile field for controversy? • Nutrition Science • Active, changing, and growing body of knowledge • The scientific approach • Systematic , methodical, slow • Scientific challenges • Paradigm shifts to respected theories • Evidence-based v Practice-based
What’s at stake? • Four of the top 10 causes of death are directly related to nutrition. • Accidents are related to drinking alcohol. Bottom line: the Standard American Diet is killing us.
Lifelong impact of nutrition • Chosen foods have a cumulative effect • Your body continuously renews itself • Best foods • Support your body’s growth & maintenance • No “good” or “bad” foods – depends on circumstance and individual • Malnutrition • Deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses
Genetics and Individuality • Genetics and nutrition affect diseases to varying degrees • Human genome • DNA
Impact of genetics Genetics play a role in 9 of the 10 leading causes of death, including: • Cancer • Heart disease • Stroke • Diabetes • Alzheimer’s disease
National Nutrition Surveillance • National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) • Recording of health status and intake • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) • Telephone survey of adults 18 y.o. and older • Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) • What people eat for two days • Comparing foods eaten with recommendations
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1990, 2000, 2010 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 2000 1990 2010 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% Bottom line: Despite our best efforts, the epidemic continues…
Reviewing the basics… • Your body uses energy that comes indirectly from the sun • Six kinds of nutrients • Four are organic (contain carbon) • Three provide energy
Nutrient Basics • Human body & food • Same materials • Different arrangements
Nutrient Basics • Energy-yielding nutrients • Carbohydrates – 4 cal/g • Fats – 9 cal/g • Proteins – 4 cal/g • Vitamins and minerals • Provide no energy • Some are essential • Scientists calculate needs
Quiz! The 20 oz. “Activator” from Smoothie King has • 1g Fat • 105 g CHO • 19g Pro • How many total calories? • How many calories would it be if you drank only 16 oz? • If you had 3 CHO / starch exchanges, how much could you drink? • Under what circumstances would this be a good choice to drink?
Can I Live on Just Supplements? • Elemental diets • Administered to severely ill people • “Real food” is superior to supplements • Nutrient interactions • Phytochemicals • Physical contributions • Psychological contributions
The Abundance of Foods to Choose From • Whole foods • Typical consumption • Fruits • Vegetables • Types of foods • Fast, processed, functional, staple
Recognizing a Nutritious Diet • Five characteristics • Adequacy • Balance • Calorie control • Intakes should not exceed need • Moderation • Not abstinence • Variety
Knowledge is not enough • Factors influencing food-related choices • Traditional and ethnic foods • Convenience • Physical factors • Psychological factors • Social factors • Philosophical factors
A Guide for Behavior Change • Behavior change takes substantial effort • Six stages of change • Assessment and goals • Realistic goals • Obstacles to change • Competence • Confidence • Motivation
Sorting the Imposters from the Real Nutrition Experts Controversy 1
Can I Trust the Media to Deliver Nutrition News? • Training of news media • Sensationalism • Be a trend watcher • Read news with an educated eye • Published in peer-reviewed journal • Description of research methods & subjects • Findings presented in context of previous research
Information Sources & Costs of Wrong Choices • Quackery • Sources of nutrition information • Television and magazines • Nutrition-related products and services • Billions in customer dollars • Identifying quackery
Identifying Valid Nutrition Information • Characteristics of scientific research • Properly designed scientific experiments • Inadequacy of anecdotal evidence • Animal findings applied to humans • Careful with generalizations • Report of findings in scientific journals
Credible Source of Nutrition Information • American Dietetic Association • www.eatright.org • National Council Against Health Fraud • www.ncahf.org • American Council on Science and health • www.acsh.org
Nutrition on the Net • Judging website credibility • Who is responsible for the site? • Do the names and credentials of information providers appear? • Are links with other reliable information sites provided? • Is the site updated regularly? • Is the site selling a product or service? • Does the site charge a fee to gain access?
True Nutrition Experts • American Dietetic Association (ADA) • Registered dietitian (RD) • Certified diabetes educator • Public health nutritionist • Dietetic technician • Dietetic technician registered
True Nutrition Experts • Credentials • Accredited institution • Licensing
Dietetics and Nutrition Practice Act Title XXXIIREGULATION OF PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS Chapter 468 MISCELLANEOUS PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS PART X DIETETICS AND NUTRITION PRACTICE (ss. 468.501-468.518)
468.502 Purpose and intent The Legislature finds that: • the practice of dietetics and nutrition or nutrition counseling by unskilled and incompetent practitioners presents a danger to the public health and safety. • it is difficult for the public to make informed choices about dietitians and nutritionists • the consequences of wrong choices could seriously endanger the public health and safety. • The sole legislative purpose in enacting this part is to ensure that every person who practices dietetics and nutrition or nutrition counseling in this state meets minimum requirements for safe practice.
468.503 Definitions • “Dietetics” means the integration and application of the principles derived from the sciences of nutrition, biochemistry, food, physiology, and management and from the behavioral and social sciences to achieve and maintain a person’s health throughout the person’s life. It is an integral part of preventive, diagnostic, curative, and restorative health care of individuals, groups, or both.
“Dietetics and nutrition practice”… …shall include assessing nutrition needs and status using appropriate data; recommending appropriate dietary regimens, nutrition support, and nutrient intake; improving health status through nutrition research, counseling, and education; and developing, implementing, and managing nutrition care systems, which includes, but is not limited to, evaluating, modifying, and maintaining appropriate standards of high quality in food and nutrition care services.
“Nutrition assessment” means the evaluation of the nutrition needs of individuals or groups, using appropriate data to determine nutrient needs or status and make appropriate nutrition recommendations. • (9) “Nutrition counseling” means advising and assisting individuals or groups on appropriate nutrition intake by integrating information from the nutrition assessment.
468.504 License required No person may engage for remuneration in dietetics and nutrition practice or nutrition counseling or hold himself or herself out as a practitioner of dietetics and nutrition practice or nutrition counseling unless the person is licensed in accordance with the provisions of this part.
468.505 Exemptions; exceptions. • Those licensed in Chapters 457-466, 480, 490, or 491 and rendering services within the scope of their practice • Persons employed in government, cooperative extension home economist, a student or trainee under supervision, someone from out of state taking a course of study… an educator in the employ of a not-for-profit,, employed by a hospital, nursing home, assisted living facility, or is a dietetic technician
Also exempted: • g) A person who markets or distributes food, food materials, or dietary supplements, or any person who engages in the explanation of the use and benefits of those products or the preparation of those products, if that person does not engage for a fee in dietetics and nutrition practice or nutrition counseling. • (j) Any person who provides weight control services or related weight control products, provided the program has been reviewed by, consultation is available from, and no program change can be initiated without prior approval by a licensed dietitian/nutritionist, a dietitian or nutritionist licensed in another state that has licensure requirements considered by the council to be at least as stringent as the requirements for licensure under this part, or a registered dietitian.
468.516 Practice requirements.— A licensee under this part shall not implement a dietary plan for a condition for which the patient is under the active care of a physician licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459, without the oral or written dietary order of the referring physician. In the event the licensee is unable to obtain authorization or consultation after a good faith effort to obtain it from the physician, the licensee may use professional discretion in providing nutrition services until authorization or consultation is obtained from the physician.