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World Religions. ACE Camp 2014 at Lincoln College Taught by Mike Sorice. Introduction – About Me. Michael Angelo Sorice Live in Urbana; from Forest Park (west side of Chicago) Played at Fenwick & Illinois Coach at Champaign Centennial High School ACF & PACE member NAQT writer

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world religions

World Religions

ACE Camp 2014 at Lincoln College

Taught by Mike Sorice

introduction about me
Introduction – About Me

Michael Angelo Sorice

Live in Urbana; from Forest Park (west side of Chicago)

Played at Fenwick & Illinois

Coach at Champaign Centennial High School

ACF & PACE member

NAQT writer

First time teaching at ACE

About to read the 2006 PACE NSC All-Star Game

class topic world religions
Class Topic – World Religions
  • 4/5ths non-Judeo-Christian religions & topics
  • 1/5th modern religions (since ~1500)
    • ~half of questions from these areas
  • Won’t cover
    • Judaism
    • Mainstream Christianity
    • The Bible
      • These are good topics that come up, so learn about them, too… elsewhere! (Not a comment on preferred religion – have no personal preference!)
answer 0 typical slide
ANSWER 0: typical slide
  • Easiest/most basic information first
  • Harder/more abstruse information later
  • Clues almost all from actual questions
  • Buzz words underlined
    • Important, but learn the context, too!
  • Sometimes information left out because it appears in a later slide
    • I’ll try to point out– leave yourself space in your notes to fill in
world religions part 1
World Religions: Part 1

Ancient Religions of India and East Asia

answer 1 hinduism
ANSWER 1: Hinduism
  • Main religion of India
  • Many gods & goddesses
    • Brahma the Creator, part of the Trimurti(Trinity)
    • Yama (death,) Agni (fire,) Surya (sun,) Chandra (moon) & many others
  • Scriptures (holy books)
    • Upanishads (“Sitting Near”)
    • Mahabharata (Epic of the Children of Bharata) & Ramayana (Epic of Rama)
    • Puranas (hymns to the gods)
  • Four goals in life
    • Artha (wealth & skill)
    • Dharma (moral living)
    • Kama (pleasure)
    • Moksha (ultimate release)
answer 2 the vedas
ANSWER 2: The Vedas
  • Main & oldest Hindu scriptures
    • 1500-1000 BCE
  • Four in number (oldest to newest)
    • Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda
  • Written in Sanskrit
  • Upanishads are mainly commentaries on them
  • Vedanta is the school of philosophy of interpreting them
  • Masters of the Vedas are called Pandits
    • Our word pundit comes from that
answer 3 vishnu
ANSWER 3: Vishnu
  • “The Preserver” - one of the three main Hindu gods
    • In the Trimurti (Trinity) along with Brahma
  • Wife (consort) is Lakshmi (a.k.a. Sri or Maya,) goddess of wealth
  • Ten avatars (earthly manifestations)
    • Matsya the Fish; Kurma the Turtle; Varaha the Boar; Narashima the Lion-Man; Vamana the Dwarf; Parashurama the Axe-Man; Lord Rama; Krishna; and Kalki, who has not yet come
  • Depicted riding on the eagle Garuda, the Bird King
  • Carries a conch shell, chakra (discus,) mace, and lotus in his four hands
answer 4 shiva
ANSWER 4: Shiva
  • “The Destroyer/Redeemer” – one of the three main Hindu gods
    • Makes up the Trimurti along with Brahma and Vishnu
  • Takes the form of Nataraja, the Eternal Dancer
  • Husband of Parvati, a.k.a. Durga or Kali, goddess of death
    • Father of Kartikeya and Ganesha
      • Ganesha has an elephant’s head because Shiva knocked his head off!
  • Rides the bull Nandi
  • Also called Rudra (in the Vedas) and Mahadeva
answer 5 indra
ANSWER 5: Indra
  • Hindu god of war and storms
    • Main god in the Vedas, but not later Hinduism
  • Killed the demon Vritra who was stealing all the world’s water
    • According to the Rig Veda
  • Lives on Mount Meru in the hall of Svarga
  • Rides an elephant named Airavata
answer 6 diwali
ANSWER 6: Diwali
  • The Hindu Festival of Lights
    • 5 days long
    • Lamps & candles (called diyas) & fireworks are lit
  • Celebrates Rama (Vishnu) defeating of the demon Ravana to rescue his wife, Sita (Lakshmi)
    • Especially sacred to Lakshmi, goddess of wealth, who is offered sweets (mithai) to ensure a prosperous year
  • Celebrates the home & family
    • House is cleaned on first day (Dhanteras)
    • Between husband & wife (Padva)
    • Between sister & brother (Bahu-beej)
answer 7 holi
ANSWER 7: Holi
  • Hindu Festival of Colors
    • Believers throw colored powder on each other
  • Celebrates love – of Krishna (Vishnu) for Radha (Lakshmi)
    • Radhais one of the gopis, girls whom Krishna loved to frolic with
  • A bonfire the night before commemorates the burning of Holika, a demoness
    • She was trying to kill Prince Prahlada
  • Celebrates the defeat of the seemingly invulnerable demon king Hiranyakashipu, who demanded to be worshipped
    • Vishnu (as the Lion-Man Narashima) slew him for Prince Prahlada, a devotee of Vishnu
answer 8 bhagavad gita
ANSWER 8: Bhagavad Gita
  • Part of the 6th book of the epic poem Mahabharata
  • The advice of Krishna (Vishnu,) who is serving as charioteer to the hero, King Arjuna
    • Arjuna is wavering because he’s in a bloody war with his own relatives. Krishna explains that duty and destiny (dharma) trump even family ties
  • Each of 18 chapters describes one yoga (discipline)
    • Bhakti yoga, or devotion to the gods, is paramount
  • Takes place during the Battle of Kurukshetra
answer 9 the castes
ANSWER 9: the castes
  • Hinduism divides people in to rigid classes, called castes (or varnas)
    • Brahmins – priests and scholars
    • Kshatriyas – warriors and earthly kings
    • Vaishyas – merchants, farmers, and makers of things
    • Shudras – laborers
  • People outside the varnas are Dalits (or untouchables)
  • Vishnu’s avatar Parashurama hates the Kshatriyas
    • He killed every Kshatriya 21 times with his axe!
  • Described in the Laws of Manu (Manusmriti)
    • Manu is the first human being in Hinduism
answer 10 buddhism
ANSWER 10: Buddhism
  • Basic scriptures are the Tripitaka, a.k.a. Three Baskets or Pali Canon
  • Spread by Ashoka, emperor of India, in the 300’s B.C.E.
  • Various sects contain many schools
    • Theravada (sometimes called Hinayana) is the older, most orthodox sect
  • Temples are known as stupas
    • Each stupa should contain a relic of the Buddha, like a hair or tooth
answer 11 buddha
ANSWER 11: Buddha
  • A prince of Shakyanamed Siddhartha Gautama
    • Buddha is a title meaning “Awakened One”
      • Some forms of Buddhism use Buddha only to refer to the Buddha; others use it to refer to many different Buddhas
  • Meditated under the Bodhi tree to realize Four Noble Truths
    • Existence is suffering (dukka), and how to deal with it: the Eightfold Way
  • Expounded his ideas in the Deer Park Sermon
  • His mother, Queen Maya, had a vision of a white elephant with 6 tusks before giving birth
    • 9th avatar of Vishnu
answer 12 reincarnation samsara
ANSWER 12: reincarnation (samsara)
  • Central concept in Buddhism & Hinduism (et al.)
  • Good karma, gained by following dharma, determines the soul’s next life
  • Also called metempsychosis or transmigration of souls
    • The soul (jiva or atman) takes a new form based on its actions in this life (or maybe not!)
  • Quasi-eternal cycle of birth, death and reincarnation is called samsara
answer 13 nirvana moksha
ANSWER 13: nirvana (moksha)
  • “Enlightenment” and escape from the cycle of samsara
    • Technically, nirvana is the bliss resulting from moksha, the escape from rebirth, but they’re used interchangeably
  • People who have achieved this are called arhats; those who put it off to help others are called bodhisattvas
    • Different schools have different ideas which is better
  • Means “extinguishing (of a candle)” (probably)
  • Four stages
    • Sotapanna (Wader,) Sakadagami (Once-Returner,) Anagami (Non-Returner,) Arhat (Perfect)
answer 14 mahayana
ANSWER 14: Mahayana
  • Largest sect of Buddhism
  • Name means “Greater Vehicle”
    • Supposed to enlighten many people at once through group practice, as opposed to individual enlightenment through individual meditation
  • Venerates bodhisattvas
    • Saints who have achieved nirvana, but remained in the world to help others do so as well
  • Many sub-schools
    • Pure Land
    • Nichiren
    • Tendai
    • Tibetan/Tantric/Vajrayana (sort-of)
answer 15 zen
ANSWER 15: Zen
  • Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism
    • Derived from Chinese Chan Buddhism
    • Sub-sects include Rinzai and Soto, founded by Dogen
  • Meditative practice called zazen
    • To achieve satori, temporary enlightenment
    • Paradoxical riddles called koans subdue the mind
      • Blue Cliff Record and Gateless Gate, collections of koans
  • Founded by Bodhidarma, an Indian monk
answer 16 sutras
ANSWER 16: sutras
  • Buddhist (and Hindu, etc.) aphoristic scriptures
    • Many thousands of different books
    • Buddhist ones contain sayings of the Buddha
      • They form the first “basket” of the Tripitaka
  • Name means “sewn (together)”
  • Mahayana Buddhist schools often based on one
    • Diamond Sutra: Vajrayana
    • Platform Sutra: Zen
    • Lotus Sutra: Tendai
  • World’s oldest printed book: 9th-C. copy of Diamond Sutra
answer 17 jainism
ANSWER 17: Jainism
  • Indian religion centered on ahimsa (non-violence)
    • The Universe is eternal, uncreated & subject to laws, as are the gods.
  • Leaders/founders are the 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford-Makers”)
    • Only the last two are historical; the 23rd, Parsva, lived ~900 B.C.E.
  • Two major sects, differ on who can be clergy, who can achieve nirvana, and what monks should wear
    • Digambara (“Sky-Clad”) – Male-only, naked
    • Svetambara (“White-Clad”) – Men and women, robed
  • Major scriptures are the Agamas (Agamasutra)
  • Paryushana/Das Lakshana is major holiday (along w/ Diwali)
    • 8-day festival – gods (devas) celebrate Tirtankaras
    • Believers fast and dedicate themselves to study
answer 18 mahavira
ANSWER 18: Mahavira
  • 24th (last) Jain Tirthankara & central figure of Jainism
    • Lived ~500 B.C.E.
  • Symbolized by the lion
    • Each Tirthankara has a symbolic animal
  • Originally named Prince Vardhamana
    • Mahavira is a title meaning “Great Warrior”
  • Preached Five Laws of Trust
    • Ahimsa, or Non-Violence
    • Satya, or Truthfulness
    • Asteya, or Non-Theft
    • Bramhacharya, or Chastity
    • Aparigraha, or Renunciation of the World
answer 19 sikhism
ANSWER 19: Sikhism
  • Indian (mainly Punjabi) monotheistic religion
    • Founded by Nanak c. 1500 C.E.
    • Centered on the Golden Temple of Amritsar
  • Scripture is called the Granth (or AdiGrath)
  • Sikhs practice the Five K’s
    • Kesh, non-cutting of hair
      • Sikhs usually wear a turban to hold their long hair
    • Kangha, carrying a small wooden comb
    • Kara, wearing an iron bracelet
    • Kacchera, wearing a particular undergarment
    • Kirpan, carrying a dagger
  • Sikhs may be baptized in holy water (Amrit) to join the Khalsa
answer 20 gurus
ANSWER 20: Gurus
  • The Gurus are the leaders of Sikhism
    • Nanak (“Light,”) founder of Sikhism; Angad; Amar Das; Ram Das; Arjun;HarGobind; HarRai; HarKrishan; TeghBahadur; and Gobind Singh
  • The 11th Guru is eternal: it’s the Sikh scripture, the Granth
    • Called Guru Granth Sahib in this context
  • In the same fashion, the Khalsa is sometimes also considered a Guru
    • Called Guru Panth(“Embodied Guru”)
answer 21 shintoism
ANSWER 21: Shintoism
  • Japanese native animism (worship of nature spirits)
  • Gods/spirits known as kami
    • Shinto also called kami-no-michi (“Way of the Kami”)
  • Major kami
    • Susanoo, god of sea and storm
    • Izanami (1st woman) and Izanagi (1st man,) made the world
  • Shrines have gates called torii and maidens called miko
  • Myth collection called the Kojiki (“Ancient Record”)
answer 22 amaterasu
ANSWER 22: Amaterasu
  • Sun goddess and chief kami of Shinto
    • Name means “Heaven Shiner”
  • Ancestor of the emperors of Japan
    • She gave them her sacred mirror, jewel, and sword
      • Sword is named Kusanagi, or “Grass Cutter”
  • Born from the left eye of Izanagi
    • After he washed it following a visit to the underworld, Yomi
  • Chief shrine is at Ise is razed and rebuilt every 20 years
answer 23 confucianism
ANSWER 23: Confucianism
  • Chinese philosophy/religion founded in the 6th C. B.C.E.
  • Four Books (Si Shu) are its scriptures
    • Analects – life and sayings of Confucius
    • Mencius – dialogues of namesake scholar
  • Ethical principles are the Wuchang (“Five Eternals”)
    • Ren, “Humaneness;” Yi, “Justice;” Li, “Piety;” Zhi, “Knowledge;” Xin, “Integrity”
  • Also “Four Virtues” (Sizi)
    • Zhong, “Loyalty;” Xiao, “Respect for Ancestors;” Jie, “Continence;” Yi, “Justice”
answer 24 confucius
ANSWER 24: Confucius
  • Philosopher born in Lu state during the Chinese Spring and Autumn period, c. 550 B.C.E.
  • Believed to have written or edited the Five Classics
    • I Ching, Book of Songs, Book of History, Book of Rites, and Spring and Autumn Annals
  • Central idea: Rectification of Names
    • Words must correspond to reality, or nothing can succeed
  • 72 disciples
    • Ziyuan, Zilu, Zichang, Zigong, etc.
answer 25 taoism daoism
ANSWER 25: Taoism (Daoism)
  • Chinese philosophical religion centered on the Tao (“Way”) and founded c. 500 B.C.E.
  • Central idea is Wu Wei (“Non-Action,”)
    • Representing harmony with nature’s opposites, yin and yang
  • Differing pantheons of gods
    • Jade Emperor
    • Three Pure Ones
    • Pangu, god of creation
  • Zuganzi (or Zhuang Zhou) is a major Taoist thinker
answer 26 laozi lao tzu
ANSWER 26: Laozi (Lao-tzu)
  • Central figure of Taoism
  • Name is a title meaning “Old Master”
    • Real name may have been Li Er
  • Author of Tao To Ching, central text of Taoism
    • “The Tao that can be spoken of is not the Tao”
    • “Spokes join to form a wheel, but the central hole moves the wagon”
  • Legendarily fathered by a star and gestated for 62 years
  • Deified as TaisahngLaojun (“Supreme Old Master”)
    • Head of the Three Pure Ones
world religions part 2
World Religions: Part 2

Ancient Religions of the Near East

answer 27 zoroastrianism
ANSWER 27: Zoroastrianism
  • Dualistic (world divided into good & evil) religion of Persia
    • Chief good god Ahura Mazda; evil, AngraMainyu/Ahriman
      • Also called Mazdaism for that reason
  • Still exists among Parsis of India & Iran
    • Leave the dead exposed in Towers of Silence to be eaten by vultures
      • Human flesh is bad and would pollute the world
  • Worship in Fire Temples (Dar-e-Mehr)
  • New Years’ Festival Nowruznear Spring equinox
  • Stories of an evil dragon named Azi-Dahaka
    • Chained up by the hero Fredon in the AlborzMtns.
answer 28 zoroaster
ANSWER 28: Zoroaster
  • Founded Zoroastrianism c. 2000-500 B.C.E. (?!)
  • Also called Zarathustra
  • Wrote parts of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian holy book
    • Specifically, the hymns called the Gathas and Yasna
  • Saw life as a struggle between asa (truth) and druj (lies)
  • Converted King Vistaspa to spread his religion
  • Biography of him called the Spend Nask(lost)
answer 29 islam
ANSWER 29: Islam
  • Centers of worship are called mosques or masjids
  • Priests are known as imams
  • Dietary code called Halal
  • Creed is the shahada
    • “God (Allah) is the only God and Muhammad is his messenger”
  • Savior known as the Mahdi will signal end times
  • Devout Muslims pray 5 times per day toward the qibla
    • The direction to the holy city of Mecca
  • The misbaha is a rosary used to pray
    • 99 beads count the 99 Names of God
answer 30 muhammad
ANSWER 30: Muhammad
  • Founder of Islam, which considers him the last messanger
    • Thus called Seal of the Prophets
  • Fled from Mecca to Medina in 662 C.E.
    • The Hijra (or Hegira) is the start of the Muslim calendar (A.H.)
  • Biography & sayings (sunnah) are collected in the Hadith
  • First prophetic vision in the cave of Hira in 610 C.E.
  • Member of the BanuHashim, a branch of the Quraysh tribe of Arabia
answer 31 koran quran
ANSWER 31: Koran (Quran)
  • Holy book of Islam – name means “Recitation”
  • Revealed (wahy) to Muhammad by Angel Gabriel (Jibril)
    • Text perfect & co-eternal with God
  • Chapters are called Suras
    • “The Cow” (Baqara)
    • “The Night Journey” (Isra)
    • “The Cave” (Kahf)
    • “Romans” (Rum)
  • Verses called ayahs; Arabic recitation called tajwid
    • A hafez is someone who can recite the whole from memory
answer 32 shiism shia islam
ANSWER 32: Shiism (Shia Islam)
  • Smaller of two major sects of Islam (majority in Iran & Iraq)
  • Believe Muhammad’s son-in-law, Imam Ali, was proper 1st Caliph (successor of Muhammad)
    • Lost the First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) over this issue
  • Supreme leaders called Imams
    • Sub-sects based on #: Twelver, Sevener/Ismaili & Fiver/Zaidi
      • Twelvers believe 12th Imam (Mahdi) on Earth in Occultation
  • Important holiday of Ashura
    • Commemorating death of Imam Hussein (son of Ali) at Karbala
answer 33 sunniism sunni islam
ANSWER 33: Sunniism (Sunni Islam)
  • Larger of two major sects of Islam (larger than Shiism)
  • Believe Abu Bakr was proper 1stCaliph & that the body of Muslims should choose the leader
    • Won the First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) over this issue
  • Consider the first 4 Caliphs Rashidun (“Rightly Guided”)
  • Name means “Traditionalists” (from Sunnah, the traditions of Muhammad’s life)
answer 34 sufism
ANSWER 34: Sufism
  • The mystical tradition within Islam
  • Possibly named for their simple woolen clothes
  • “Whirling Dervishes” are Sufis who worship by spinning
  • The poet Rumi founded an order of Sufis
  • Orders of Sufis are called turuqs
    • Alevi
    • Mevlevi
    • Chishti
answer 35 the five pillars
ANSWER 35: the Five Pillars
  • The basic practices of Islam
    • Recite the Shahada (creed)
    • Pray 5 times each day (Salat)
    • Give alms to the poor (Zakat)
      • 2.5% of ones wealth is to be donated
    • Fast during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)
    • Make a pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
  • Delineated in the Hadith of Gabriel
  • Known in Arabic as the arkan al-din
answer 36 hajj haj hadj
ANSWER 36: Hajj (Haj/Hadj)
  • Pilgrimage to Mecca
    • All able-bodied Muslims must go at least once (it’s a Pillar!)
  • Commemorates the lives of Abraham (Ibrahim) and Hagar (Hajar)
  • Central rite: circling (Tawaf) the Kaabaat Masjid al-Haram (“Forbidden Mosque”)
    • Some believe the Black Stone of the Kaaba absorbs Hajjis’ sins
  • Many other rituals
    • Visiting the Well of ZamZam
    • Running (Sayi) between the hills of Safa and Marwah
    • Throwing stones at pillars representing Satan (“Stoning the Devil”/Ramy al-Jamarat)
  • Happens during final month of the Islamic calendar
    • Dhu al-Hijjah (“Hajj Month”)
    • Ends with the feast holiday Eid al-Adha
answer 37 ramadan
ANSWER 37: Ramadan
  • Able-bodied Muslim practice sawm (fasting from sunrise to sunset)
    • One of the Pillars
  • 9th month of the Muslim calendar, name means “Hot/Dry”
    • Commemorates the Hijra
    • Determined by sightings of the crescent moon over sunset
  • Ends with the feast holiday Eid al-Fitr
  • Fast is broken with a meal called iftar & begun after a dawn meal called suhor
  • Extra night prayers called tarawih are said
  • Contains the holiday Laylat al-Qadr (“Night of Power”)
answer 38 druze
ANSWER 38: Druze
  • Egyptian (now Lebanese/Syrian )offshoot of Ismaili (Sevener) Shia Islam
    • Begun in the 11th C. C.E.
    • Have reserved political positions in Lebanon
  • Revere al-Hakim, a Fatimid Caliph
    • May believe he was manifestation of god
  • Represented by a five-pointed, multicolored star
  • Practice taqiya, the hiding of their faith from outsiders
  • Named for Muhammad ad-Darazi
    • Though they consider him a heretic
  • Founded by Hamzaibn Ali
world religions part 3
World Religions: Part 3

Modern & New World Religions

answer 39 voodoo
ANSWER 39: Voodoo
  • Afro-French syncretic offshoot of Catholicism
    • Uses Fon, Ewe, Bakongo & Yoruba practices
  • Believe in spirits called loas
    • Bondye (“Good God” – chief deity)
    • Papa Legba
    • Shango
    • Baron Samedi
  • Priests known as houngans & priestesses mambos
  • Worship places called Sosyetes or Hounfours
answer 40 santeria
ANSWER 40: Santeria
  • Afro-Spanish syncretic offshoot of Catholicism
    • Mainly uses Yoruban traditions, including chief god Olurun
  • Name means “Way of the Saints”
    • Gods syncretized/disguised as Catholic saints
    • Also called Regla de Ocha or Lucumi
      • Lucumi is also the name of the language of worship
  • Deities/saints known as Orishas (or Orichas)
  • Divination ceremony known as Ifa
  • Temples called Iles (or Casas de Santos)
answer 41 quakers
ANSWER 41: Quakers
  • 17th C. English offshoot of Christianity
  • Also called Religious Society of Friends
  • Name may come from tremors of ecstatic worshippers (or fear at persecution)
  • Founded by George Fox
  • Established in America by William Penn in Pennsylvania
  • Worship in Meeting Houses
  • Believe in the Inner Light
    • Force of god may inspire anyone at any time, so no clergy
  • First members called the Valiant Sixty
answer 42 shakers
ANSWER 42: Shakers
  • 18th C. Anglo-American Christian sect
    • Began as offshoot of Quakers
  • Wrote the hymn “Simple Gifts” (basis for Appalachian Spring)
  • Founded towns in America like New Lebanon, NY
  • Most prominent leader was “Mother” Ann Lee
    • Believed to be a second coming of Christ
    • Other leaders: James Whittaker, Lucy Wright & Joseph Meacham
  • Formally called United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing
  • Believe in strict celibacy
    • Communities tend to die out – only one left (Sabbath Day Lake Village, Maine)
answer 43 mormonism church of jesus christ of latter day saints
ANSWER 43: Mormonism (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)
  • American offshoot of Christianity founded c. 1820 in NY
  • Followers fled to Deseret (Utah) after being persecution & infighting in Ohio, Illinois & Missouri
    • Issues persisted until the Utah War of 1857-58, a.k.a. “Buchanan’s Blunder”
      • Mountain Meadows Massacre
  • Believe Tribes of Israel became American Indians
    • Nephites & Lamanites
  • Scriptures include Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants & The Pearl of Great Price
    • Latter two are additions to the King James version of the Bible
answer 44 book of mormon
ANSWER 44: Book of Mormon
  • Central scripture unique to Mormonism (it uses the Bible as well)
  • Believed to have been translated from Golden Plates written in Reformed Egyptian
    • Found in the Hill of Cumorah
    • Translated using “seer stones” called Urim and Thummim
  • Components Books: Plates/Books of Nephi, Book of Jarom, Book of Omni, Words of Mormon, Book of Mosiah, Book of Ether
  • Attested by the Testimony of the Three Witnesses and Testimony of the Eight Witnesses
    • They appear at the start of most editions
answer 45 joseph smith jr
ANSWER 45: Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • Founder of Mormonism & author of the Book of Mormon
  • Visited by the angel Moroni in 1823
    • Clued in to the existence of the Golden Plates
  • Moved to Kirtland, Ohio, then Independence, Missouri, then Nauvoo, Illinois (which he founded)
  • Worked with Oliver Cowdery, his scribe
  • Killed by a mob in jail in Carthage, Illinois in 1844
    • Jailed after his followers destroyed the printing press of a sect who disagreed with “plural marriage”
answer 46 bahaism
ANSWER 46: Bahaism
  • 19th C. syncretic offshoot of Shia Islam
    • All religions fundamentally worship the same god
      • All people are one and all religions valid
        • Use practices & scriptures from other religions
  • Founded by Bahaullah,neeMirzaHysayn Ali Nuri
    • Bahaullah and most early Bahais had been Babis
      • Babis were followers of the Bab (“Gate,”) a (slightly) earlier preacher from Persia
  • Believes religious founders were Manifestations of God
  • Calendar of 19 months of 19 days (plus 4 or 5 intercalary)
  • Symbolized by 9-point star
  • Basic texts by Bahaullah: Book of Laws (Kitab-i-Aqdas) & Book of Certitude (Kitab-i-Iqan)
answer 47 jehovah s witnesses
ANSWER 47: Jehovah’s Witnesses
  • American Christian sect founded c. 1870 by Charles Taze Russell
  • Publishes a newsletter called The Watchtower
  • Refuse blood transfusion or donation
  • Worship in Kingdom Halls
  • Grew out of the Movement of Bible Students
  • Believe that exactly 144,000 people go to Heaven
  • Believe that end times began October 1, 1914
answer 48 christian science
ANSWER 48: Christian Science
  • American Christian sect founded 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy
    • After recovering from a slip & fall in Lynn, MA, 1866
  • Refuse most medical treatment, preferring to trust in the power of prayer
  • Worship in Churches of Christ, Scientist
  • Central text: Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (by Eddy)
    • Also Manual of the Mother Church
  • Christian Science Mother Church built in Boston, 1894
answer 49 rastafarianism
ANSWER 49: Rastafarianism
  • Jamaican offshoot of Ethiopic Christianity founded c. 1930
    • Revere Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I (RasTafari)
    • Also integrate pan-African/back-to-Africa ideologies
      • Consider Marcus Garvey a saint/prophet
  • Call god Jah (short form of Jehovah)
  • Dietary code called I-tal
  • Sacred text Holy Piby
  • Holiday Grounation Day (Haile Selassie 1966 visit to Jamaica)
    • Sometimes erroneously “Groundation” in questions
  • Sects known as Mansions
    • BoboAshanti, Nyabinghi, 12 Tribes of Israel
answer 50 nation of islam
ANSWER 50: Nation of Islam
  • Black nationalist American sect founded c. 1930
    • Most members converted to orthodox Sunni Islam 1976; the current group is a revival created 1977
  • Led by Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad & Louis Farrakhan
  • Founder Wallace Fard Muhammad
    • Believed to be god (Allah) incarnate
  • Believe in giant flying saucers called Mother Planes
  • Believe white people are devils resulting from “grafting” by scientist Yakub