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UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING START-UP, FIXED, AND VARIABLE COSTS. UNIT 3 • SHOW ME THE MONEY: FINDING, SECURING, AND MANAGING IT. Class Name Instructor Name Date, Semester. Performance Objectives After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Performance Objectives.
After this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Performance Objectives
1. Identify the investment required for business startup.2. Describe the variable costs of starting a business.3. Analyze your fixed operating costs and calculate gross profit.4. Set up financial record keeping for your business.
What Does It Cost to Operate a Business?
To run a successful business, you will need to keep track of your costs and have more cash coming in than is going out.
Economics of one Unit (EOU)-because everything sold has related costs, a business can make a profit only if the selling price per unit is greater than the cost per unit.
Seed Capital: one-time expense of opening a business.
Prototype: a model or pattern that serves as an example of how a product would look and operate if it were produced.
Brainstorm to Avoid Start-Up surprises.
Research the Costs.
Keep a Reserve Equal to One-Half of Start-Up Investments. Cash Reserves: emergency funds and a pool of cash resources
Predict the Payback Period
Payback period: estimated time required to earn sufficient net cash flow to cover start-up investments.
Net Cash Flow per Month
Estimate Value: a tool to determine the current value of proposed investments, of which net present value (NPV) is widely accepted as the most theoretically sound.
Variable Costs – expenses that vary directly with changes in production or sales volume.
1. Variable costs fall into two subcategories: Cost of Goods Sold
(COGS) or Cost of Services Sold (COSS)
Fixed Costs – are expenses that must be paid regardless of whether or not sales are being generated.
Calculating Critical Costs
Calculating Total Gross Profit (Contribution Margin)-gross profit per unit-the selling price minus total variable costs plus other variable costs.
Calculating Economics of One Unit (EOU) When You Sell Multiple Products - a business selling a variety of products has to create a separate EOU for each item to determine whether each is profitable.
Inventory Costs-expenses associated with materials and direct labor for production until the product is sold.
Average Contribution Margin
A business selling a variety of products can use average COGS to determine an average contribution margin.
Exhibit 7-5 Retail Business
Economics of One Unit Analysis
Unit = 1 Candy Bar
Fixed Operating Costs
Fixed operating costs -expenses that do not vary with changes in the volume of production or sales.
7 Common fixed operating costs: USAIIRD:
Depreciation Makes Records More Accurate
Depreciation – the percentage of value of an asset subtracted periodically to reflect the declining value.
If you buy a computer that will last 4 years, spread the expense out over 4 years.
Subtract 25% of the computer’s cost from gross profit each year, instead of subtracting 100% of the cost from gross profit the first year.
Fixed Operating Costs Do Change over Time
Fixed costs does not mean that costs never changes! For instance:
Advertising or heating and cooling costs
Net Profit – the remainder of revenues minus fixed and variable costs and taxes.
For example: for every watch you sell, your total cost, fixed and variable, is $6.50. If you receive $15 for each watch, therefore, your profit before taxes is:
$15.00 Selling Price - $6.50 Total Cost per Unit = $8.50 Profit before Taxes
The Dangers of Fixed Costs
If a business does not have enough sales to cover its fixed costs, it will lose money!
Inflation: the gradual, continuous increase in the prices of products and services.
The systematic recording, reporting, and analysis of the financial transactions of a business (keeping statistical records of inflows and outflows) is called accounting.
Audit- a review of financial and business records to ascertain integrity and compliance with standards and laws, particularly by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Suggestions for Keeping Good Records
Accounting Software – There are many excellent computer software programs on the market to help the small business owner keep good records and generate financial statements and analytical reports; Intuit QuickBooks, Microsoft Office Accounting, & Peachtree Accounting.
Receipts and Invoices
Receipt = document with date a amount of purchase. Always get a receipt for every purchase you make
Invoice = a bill or statement, shows the product or service sold and the amount the customer is to pay.
Keep at Least Two Copies of Your Records
Use Business Checks for BusinessExpenses
Avoid using cash for business. Use checks, get receipts. Keep a paper trail.
Deposit money from sales right away.
Cash versus Accrual Accounting Methods
Cash Accounting Method – the procedure wherein transactions are recorded as cash as paid out or received.
Accrual Method – Account process wherein transactions are recorded at the time of occurrence, regardless of the transfer of cash.
Recognizing Categories of Costs
Understanding the key categories of accounting data:
cash accounting method
fixed operating costs