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### FINC3240International Finance

Capital Budgeting (2)

The Value of a Project

- Determined by the present value of its expected investment cost and future cash flows.

Rule: NPV > 0

NPV

NPV = B – C =

Computing NPV using BA II Plus

- Press CF, press -1200 and then press ‘ENTER’ for CF0.
- Next press “” and enter 500 for C01.
- Press ‘ENTER’, “”, and enter 1 for F01, then ‘ENTER’, “”.
- Similarly enter C02 = 600, F02 = 1, C03 = 700, and F03 = 1. Make sure that all the cash flows later than C03 are zero.
- Press NPV. Enter the discount rate of 10 percent by pressing 10 and then ‘ENTER’.
- The display will show that I = 10.
- Next press the “” and press CPT.
- The calculator will display the NPV of 276.33.
- Decision: Accept project

Last Homework

1. Your division is considering a projects with the following net cash flows (in millions). The initial investment cost is 25, the cash flows at the end of year 1, 2, 3 are 5,10,17, respectively. What are the projects’ NPV assuming the cost of capital is 5%? 10%? 15%?

2. Your division is considering a projects with the following net cash flows (in millions). The initial investment cost is -20, the cash flows at the end of year 1, 2, 3 are 10,9,6, respectively. What are the projects’ NPV assuming the cost of capital is 5%? 10%? 15%?

3. A firm with a 14% capital cost is evaluating a project. The project needs 6000 as the initial investment and has 2,000 cash inflows for the following 5 years. Calculate NPV.

Estimating Project Cash Flows

To apply NPV rule, we need the project’s cash flows and the appropriate discount rate.

In this session, you will learn how to estimate a project’s cash flows. The discount rate (cost of capital, WACC) will be given to you.

6

Income Statement Overview 1

Also called

earnings statement

profit & loss statement

Matches revenues & expenses over a period of time, e.g., past quarter or year

‘Flow’ measure statement

Each value on an income statement represents cumulative amount of that item through the accounting period

7

Income Statement Overview 2

Income Statement

Company Name

For the time period ending date

- Net Sales
- - Cost of Goods Sold
- Operating Expenses
- Depreciation
- = Operating Profit
- - Interest Expense
- = Profit Before Taxes
- - Taxes
- = Net Income

- Operating income
- Earnings before interest & taxes (EBIT)

- Earnings before taxes (EBT)

- Earnings
- Net profit

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Income Statement Items 1

Net sales

= Gross sales – (returns & allowances)

Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

include raw material and labor costs

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Income Statement Items 2

Operating expenses

Include management salaries, advertising expenditures, repairs & maintenance, R&D, general & administrative expenses, lease payments.

Interest expense

Taxes

Federal, state and/or local levels

Net income

‘bottom line’ of income statement

profit earned during accounting period

NI = Retained Earnings + Dividend Payout

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Example

Prepare a multi-step income statement for the ABC company for the year ending Dec 31, 2006, given the information below:

Advertising expenditures 68,000

Cost of goods sold 2,433,000

Depreciation 78,000

Gross sales 3,210,000

Interest expenses 64,000

Lease payment 52,000

Management salary 240,000

Material purchase 2,425,000

R&D expenditures 35,000

Repair and maintenance costs 22,000

Returns and allowances 48,000

Taxes 51,000

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Solution

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Estimating cash flows guidelines

Add back depreciation to net income.

Ignore interest expense.

All project cash flows must be incremental.

Ignore allocated costs and sunk costs.

Include opportunity costs.

Include changes in net working capital.

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Why add back depreciation?

Depreciation is a non-cash charge and must be added to net income to estimate cash flow.

14

Ignore interest expense

WACC (weighted average cost of capital) includes the interest expenses.

In determining a domestic project’s cash flows, we ignore it’s financing cost, i.e., the interest expense.

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All project cash flows must be incremental

To evaluate a project, we look at the cash flows which it contributes towards the firm’s existing cash flows. In other words, we look at project’s incremental cash flows.

How to determine incremental cash flows?

Look at the firm’s cash flows without the project.

Look at the firm’s cash flows with the project.

The difference is the incremental cash flows.

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Ignore allocated costsand sunk costs

Allocated costs: rent, supervisory salaries, administrative costs, and various overhead expenses.

These costs are not incremental. They don’t change if the project is undertaken. Thus, they should not be considered in estimating the project’s incremental cash flows.

Sunk (irrecoverable) costs: costs which cannot be recovered regardless of whether the firm undertakes the project.

Examples: R&D expenses and consultant fees occurred already.

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Include opportunity costs

Suppose the project requires the use of some asset owned by the firm.

If the asset is not used by the project, the firm can sell the asset for $X. This $X is the opportunity cost of the asset. Such a cost should be included in the project’s cost.

An asset’s opportunity cost is the money that the firm can receive if the asset is put to the next best use. The ‘next best’ use may be to sell the asset.

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Changes in net working capital

Net working capital=current asset – current liability

Positive working capital is required to ensure that a firm is able to continue its operations and that it has sufficient funds to satisfy both maturing short-term debt and upcoming operational expenses. The management of working capital involves managing inventories, accounts receivable, account payables, accruals, and cash.

Very often, a project will require an initial increase in net working capital. This increase in net working capital must be added to the project’s costs.

Assume that this additional working capital is liquidated (sold for cash) at the end of the project’s life. So, this liquidation is a cash inflow in the last period.

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Assets

Liabilities and Owners Equity

Cash

Marketable securities

Accounts Receivable

Inventories

Total Current Assets

Gross Fixed Assets

(less Accum. Depreciation)

Net Fixed Assets

Total Assets

Notes Payable

Accounts Payable

Accrued Expenses

Current Portion of LTD

Total Current Liabilities

Long term (L.T.) Debt

Total Liabilities

Preferred Stock

Common Stock

Retained Earnings

Total Liabilities and equity

S.T.

Funds

Liquidity

L.T.

Capital

Assets

Claims on Assets

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Question

Thompson Company has to decide whether to build a new factory. Management has collected various cost data to use to make the decision. Some of the items collected are listed below. Which of the following should Thompson consider as being relevant for computing cash flows for the new factory project?

$500,000 was spent last year to upgrade a piece of property on which the company is planning to build the new factory.

It will cost $10,000,000 to construct the factory and new equipment costing $3,250,000 will need to be purchased and installed to begin production of the product to be sold.

The factory construction costs of $10,000,000 will be financed entirely with new long-term debt (specifically a new bond issue). The company estimates that the interest costs of this new debt will be $850,000 per year.

The variable cost of production is estimated to be 65% of annual sales.

The accounting department plans to allocate supervisory and management costs of $25,000 per year to the project. No new supervisory or management personnel will be required.

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Capital budgeting example 1

You are given the responsibility of conducting the project selection analysis in your firm. You have to calculate the NPV of a given project. The appropriate cost of capital is 12 percent and the firm is in the 30 percent tax bracket. You are provided the following pieces of information regarding the project:

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Details

The project is going to be built on a piece of land that the firm already owns. The market value of the land is $1 million.

If the project is undertaken, prior to construction, an amount of $100,000 would have to be spent to make the land usable for construction purposes.

In order to come up with the project concept, the company had hired a marketing research firm for $200,000.

The firm has spent another $250,000 on R&D for this project.

23

Details

The project will require an initial outlay of $20 million for plant and machinery.

The sales from this project will be $15 million per year of which 20 percent will be from lost sales of existing products.

The variable costs of manufacturing for this level of sales will be $9 million per year.

The company uses straight-line depreciation. The project has an economic life of ten years and will have a salvage value of $3 million at the end.

24

Details

Because of the project the company will need additional working capital of $1 million which can be liquidated at the end of ten years.

The project will require additional supervisory and managerial manpower that will cost $200,000 per year.

The accounting department has allocated $350,000 as allocated overhead cost for supervisory and managerial salaries.

25

Calculate initial cost

Initial cost is the sum of:

Market value of land: $1 mil (opportunity cost)

Land improvement $100 k

Plant & machinery: $20 mil

Incremental working capital: $1 mil

Initial cost

= 1,000,000 + 100,000 + 20,000,000 + 1,000,000

= $22,100,000

26

Calculate the annual incremental cash flow: step 1

Calculate the annual depreciation expense

For this project, fixed assets refer to $20mil plant & machinery. Therefore,

Depreciation

= (20,000,000 – 3,000,000)/10

= $1,700,000

Calculate incremental sales

Incremental sales = 0.8 x 15,000,000 = $12,000,000

27

Consider other cash flows

At the end of project’s life (t=10), company

Recovers $1 mil additional working capital (item 9)

Receives $3 mil salvage value from plant & machinery (item 8)

Additional cash flows at end of project

= 1,000,000 + 3,000,000

= $4,000,000

29

Let’s bring all the cash flows together 1

CF0 (initial cost) = $22,100,000

Annual incremental after-tax cash flow (Year 1 through Year 10) = $2,470,000

Additional cash flow in Year 10 = $4,000,000

So in year 10, the company receives a total of = 2,470,000 + 4,000,000 = $6,470,000

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Let’s bring all the cash flows together 2

To compute NPV, enter cash flows in this way:

CF0 = -22,100,000

C01 = 2,470,000, F01=9

C02 = 6,470,000, F02=1

Then press NPV, enter I = 12, press CPT and NPV.

NPV = -$6,856,056.17

Decision: reject the project.

31

Capital budgeting example 2

ABC Corp. manufactures television sets and computer monitors. The company is considering introducing a new 40” flat screen television/monitor. The company’s CFO has collected the following information about the proposed product.

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Details

1) The project has an anticipated economic life of 5 years.

2) The company will have to purchase a new machine to produce the screens. The machine has an up front cost (t = 0) of $4,000,000. The machine will be depreciated on a straight-line basis over 5 years. The company anticipates that the machine will last for five years and then have no salvage value (that is, it will be worthless).

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Details

3) If the company goes ahead with the proposed product, it will have to increase net working capital by $200,000. At t = 5, the net working capital will be recovered after the project is completed.

4) The screen is expected to generate sales revenue of $2,000,000 the first year; $4,500,000 the second through fourth years and $3,000,000 in the fifth year. Each year the operating costs (excluding depreciation) are expected to equal 50% of sales revenue.

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Details

5) The company’s interest expense each year will be $350,000.

6) The new screens are expected to reduce the sales of the company’s large screen TV’s by $500,000 per year.

7) The company’s cost of capital is 12%.

8) The company’s tax rate is 30%.

35

Questions

What is the initial investment for the project?

What is the 3rd year expected incremental operating cash flow? (i.e., the incremental after tax cash flow)

What is the 5th year incremental non-operating cash flow?

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Q1: initial investment

To answer Q1, you need points 2 & 3.

Initial investment

= machine cost + change in net working capital

= 4,000,000 + 200,000

= $4,200,000

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Q2: 3rd incremental operating cash flow

To answer Q2, you need points 2,4,6,8.

Steps:

1) Incremental sales

= 4,500,000 – 500,000 = 4,000,000

2) Annual depreciation = (4,000,000)/5 = 800,000

3) Incremental operating cost for 3rd year

= 0.5 x 4,500,000 = 2,250,000

Next, draw up the incremental income statement

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Q3: 5th year incremental non-operating cash flow

Very simple. The only incremental non-operating cash flow is the cash flow from liquidating the increase in net working capital (point 3).

5th year incremental non-operating cash flow = $200,000

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