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FINC3240 International Finance. Chapter 19 Financing International Trade. Objectives. This chapter will: A. Describe methods of payment for international trade B. Explain common trade finance methods

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FINC3240International Finance

Chapter 19

Financing International Trade

Objectives l.jpg

This chapter will:

A. Describe methods of payment for international trade

B. Explain common trade finance methods

C. Describe the major agencies that facilitate international trade with export insurance and/or loan programs

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Payment Methods

1. Prepayment

  • Same as cash in advance

  • Payment usually by wire transfer

  • Method offers exporter (seller) greatest degree of protection

  • Usually requested when

    1.) First time buyer

    2.) Danger of pre shipment cancellation

    3.) Importer country has high political risk

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Payment Methods

2. Letters of Credit ( L/C )

a. an instrument issued by a bank on behalf of the importer (buyer)

b. promising to pay the exporter upon presentation of shipping documents in compliance with the terms stipulated therein.

c. In effect, the bank is substituting its credit for that of the buyer.

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Payment Methods

3. Drafts (or bill of exchange)

a. an unconditional promise drawn by the exporter that instructs the buyer to pay the face amount of the draft upon presentation of shipping documents

b. affords the exporter less protection than an L/C because the banks are not obligated to honor payments on the buyer’s behalf.

c. sight draft---the buyer’s bank will not release the shipping documents to the buyer until the buyer pays the draft. (documents against payment)

d. time draft---the buyer’s bank release the shipping documents against signing of the draft. (documents against acceptance)

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Payment Methods

4. Consignment

a. exporter ships the goods to the importer

while still retaining actual title to the merchandise.

b. The importer has access to the inventory but does not have to pay for the goods until they have been sold to a third party.

c. The exporter is trusting the importer to remit payment for the goods sold at that time.

d. If the importer fails to pay, the exporter has limited recourse because no draft is involved and the goods have already been sold.

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Payment Methods

5. Open Account

a. The opposite of prepayment - the exporter ships the merchandise and expects the buyer to remit payment according to the

agreed-upon terms.

b. The exporter is relying fully upon the financial creditworthiness, integrity, and reputation of the buyer.

c. method is used when the seller and buyer have mutual trust and a great deal of experience with each other.

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Trade Finance Methods

1. Accounts Receivable Financing

a. could take the form of an open account shipment or a time draft

b. the bank will provide a loan to the exporter secured by an assignment of the account receivable.

c. If the buyer fails to pay, who will be responsible for repaying the loan?

2. Factoring Receivables

the exporter sells the accounts receivable without recourse.

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B. Trade Finance Methods

3. Letters of Credit ( L/C )


4. Others

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Agencies That Motivate International Trade

1. Export-Import Bank of the United States

a. Established in 1934 with the original goal of facilitating Soviet-American trade.

b. Its mission today is to finance and facilitate the export of American goods and services

c. maintain the competitiveness of American companies in overseas markets.

d. programs that are classified as

1.) guarantees

2.) loans

3.) bank insurance

4.) export credit insurance.

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Agencies That Motivate International Trade

2. Private Export Funding Co. (PEFCO)

a. is owned by a consortium of commercial banks and industrial companies.

b. provides medium and long-term fixed rate financing to foreign buyers.

3. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)

a self-sustaining federal agency responsible for insuring direct U.S. investments in foreign countries against the risks of currency inconvertibility, expropriation, and other political risks.

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The Sports Exports Company produces footballs and exports them to a distributor in the United Kingdom. It typically sends footballs in bulk and then receives payment after the distributor receives the shipment. The business relationship with the distributor is based on trust. Although the relationship has worked thus far, Jim Logan (owner of the Sports Exports Company) is concerned about the possibility that the distributor will not make its payment.

Q1: what kind of method of payment could Jim use to ensure that he will be paid for the products he exports?

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Example (continue)

Q2: Jim has discussed the possibility of expanding his export business through a second sporting goods distributor in the United Kingdom; this second distributor would cover a different territory than the first distributor. The second distributor is only willing to engage in a consignment arrangement when selling footballs to retail stores. Explain the risk to Jim beyond the typical types of risk he incurs when dealing with the first distributor. Should Jim pursue this type of business?

ANSWER: With a consignment arrangement, the Sports Exports Company would retain title to the merchandise. Thus, it would not receive payment until after the second distributor sold the footballs. Also, even if the second distributor does sell the footballs but fails to pay for them, the Sports Exports Company has limited recourse.