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  1. Toffler's Wave Theory Timeline

  2. TOFFLER’S SIX STRANDS OVERVIEW Color –coded to identify the elements for each strand of the time line Strand 1: Toffler’s three waves: Red • Wave One – Agriculture Age • Wave Two – Industrial Age • Wave Three- Information Age • Wave Four – Biotechnology Strand 2: Key technological advances and innovations for each decade. (Blue) * economic-growth-expansion-unemployment-fossil-fuel-powered-era-global-warming-and-carbon-emission-beginning. Strand 3:Work: Business and corporate philosophies by decade ( Green). Strand 4:Education Important theories of learning and instruction by decade( Purple). Strand 5: Nature, society and culture: Events that determined the thinking of each decade (Orange). Strand 6: Religious :Mixture of traditional religions into one All- faith worship ( Black).

  3. 1st Wave: Agricultural AgeJan 1, 1700 to Jan 1, 1899 • First Wave is the society after agrarian revolution and replaced the first hunter-gatherer cultures.

  4. 2nd Wave: Industrial AgeJan 1, 1780- Jan 1, 1950is the society during the Industrial Revolution (ca. late 17th century through the mid-20th century). The main components of the Second Wave society are nuclear family, factory-type education system and the corporation

  5. 3rd Wave: Information AgeJan 1, 1950 to Jan 1, 2005super-industrial society : Information Age, Space Age, Electronic Era, Global Village, technetronic age, scientific-technological revolution), which to various degrees predicted demassification, diversity, knowledge-based production, and the acceleration of change (one of Toffler's key maxims is "change is non-linear and can go backwards, forwards and sideways").

  6. 4TH WAVE : BiotechnologyJan 1, 2010 to 2010Two major predictions of Toffler's – the paperless office and human cloning – have yet to be realized.I predict that their will be an explosion of new innovations in Biotechnology .

  7. Toffler’s Six Strands Strand Two / Color Codedfrom 1900 to present • 01/01/1900 – TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES AND INNOVATIONS • 1900-1909 The Modern State • http://www.michaelariens.com/legalhistory/timeline.htmThe Supreme Court decides Plessey v. Ferguson, (1898) which upholds "separate but equal" treatment of blacks against an Equal Protection challenge, Pres. McKinley shot by anarchist, T. Roosevelt begins conservation of forest, Roosevelt asserts U.S. right to intervene in Latin America , NAACP founded, 16th amendment – federal income tax, millions of European immigrants arrive in US

  8. BLUE STRAND 2 : TECHNOLOGY • 01/01/1900 • 1900-1909 Technology Inventions/Advances - Radar & Plastics • http://www.radarworld.org/huelsmeyer.html Christian Hulsmeyer - The first radar system used in shipping (1904) - On the 30th April 1904, Christian Huelsmeyer in Düsseldorf, Germany, applied for a patent for his 'telemobiloscope' which was a transmitter-receiver system for detecting distant metallic objects by means of electrical waves (1904) and Leo Baekeland - Inventor of plastic

  9. 1910-1919 Inventions - Radio wave regeneration, Edison & music01/01/1910 • http://world.std.com/~jlr/doom/armstrng.htm Edwin Howard Armstrong invented the regenerative circuit (patented in 1914) Edison records music on cylinders with a diamond stylus for better acoustics

  10. 01/01/19201920-1929 Technology Inventions - TV, Loudspeakers • http://inventors.about.com/od/xzstartinventors/a/Zworykin.html The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladimir Kosma Zworykin Rice & Kellogg at General Electric established the basic principle of the direct-radiator loudspeaker with a small coil-driven mass-controlled diaphragm in a baffle with a broad infrequency range of uniform response.

  11. 01/01/19301930-1039 Technology Inventions - electron microscope and tape recorders • http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/04/dayintech_0420 Germans Max Knott and Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope and Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting - first magnetic recording

  12. 01/01/19401940-1949 Technology Inventions - 1st computer, 1st computer controlled by software • http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer (1942) Conrad Zuse's Z3, the first computer controlled by software (1941) http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/zuse.html

  13. 01/01/19501950-1959 Technology Inventions/Advances - Optic Fiber & 1st Video Tape Recorder • http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/ginsburg.html Charles Ginsburg invented the first video tape recorder (VTR) (1952) and Optic fiber invented (1956) by Mariner Singh Kapany http://www.buzzle.com/articles/inventions-of-the-1950s.html

  14. 01/01/1910 • 1910-1919 The Progressive Era • http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/U.S._Progressive_Party_1912 T Roosevelt runs for President as nominee of Bull Moose Party (Progressive). TR and Taft split Republican vote, and Wilson wins, 1st Dem Pres since Grover Cleveland-1892; World War I begins, the Communists take over Russia; the War to End All Wars ends, Germany is treated poorly in the Treaty of Versailles embittering Hitler;18th (prohibition) ratified.19th Amendment, (women right to vote), Selective Service Act creates draft

  15. 01/01/1920 • 1920-1929 A Return to Normalcy • http://www.infoplease.com/askeds/promising-chicken-every-pot.html This decade is known as the Roaring 20’s, more Americans live in cities than in rural areas; the first Red Scare takes place; Supreme Court holds minimum wage law unconstitutional in Adkins v. Children's Hospital. H Hoover is elected on the promise of "a chicken in every pot, a car in every garage." 1929-In October, the stock market crashes, and the Great Depression begins.

  16. 01/01/19301930 – 1939 The New Deal Landslide • http://www.sagehistory.net/deprnewdeal/NewDealSummary.htm FDR is inaugurated as President. Although FDR campaigns on a platform of balancing the budget, he begins his First 100 Days by closing the banks, engaging in deficit spending & beginning the New Deal. Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany with unlimited power. The Supreme Court holds unconstitutional aspects of the New Deal, and a state minimum wage law. FDR is reelected by a landslide; World War II begins when Germany invades Poland

  17. 01/01/19401940-1949 Rise of Money Politics • http://www.besthistorysites.net/WWII.shtml Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor & the US declares war against Japan. At the end of April, Hitler commits suicide. US out of depression. FDR dies, and is succeeded by Truman. In August, the US drops two atomic bombs & Japanese surrender ending WWII. The Cold War between US and the Soviet Union begins; China falls to the Communists. Truman defeats Dewey. The Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) treaty became law.

  18. 01/01/19401940-1949 Rise of Money Politics • 01/01/1940 • 1940-1949 Rise of Money Politics • http://www.besthistorysites.net/WWII.shtml Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor & the US declares war against Japan. At the end of April, Hitler commits suicide. US out of depression. FDR dies, and is succeeded by Truman. In August, the US drops two atomic bombs & Japanese surrender ending WWII. The Cold War between US and the Soviet Union begins; China falls to the Communists. Truman defeats Dewey. The Soviet Union exploded an atomic bomb. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) treaty became law.

  19. 01/01/19501950-1959 Cold War Politics • http://www.thecorner.org/hist/europe/coldwar.htm McCarthyism rooting out the Communists. Korean war. Rosenberg's, are convicted of spying & sentenced to death. Eisenhower wins presidency. US Supreme Court decides Brown v. Board of Education, holding separate but equal is inherently unequal in public education and mandates desegregation - Rosa Parks is arrested, Martin Luther King leads boycott.

  20. 01/01/19601960-1969 The Era of Civil Revolt • http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rjackson/webbibl.html JFK is elected Pres. A minor conflict in Asia becomes the Vietnam War. Civil rights advocates-Freedom Riders-begin riding buses across the south. TV images show peaceful advocates brutally beaten. Cuban Missile crisis between US & the Soviet Union; JFK assassinated; the 1st major civil rights bill since reconstruction. King and R Kennedy both assassinated. Riots tear apart cities. Demonstrations against the Viet Nam War; the hippie movement.

  21. 01/01/19701970 – 1979 Seeds of Corruption • http://www.enotes.com/1970-government-politics-american-decades/people-news Nixon reelected & resigns after Watergate. The US leaves Vietnam. Roe v. Wade is decided. SCt - death penalty unconstitutional. Oil crisis - long gas lines. Rioting occurs in Boston after school busing for integration. Jimmy Carter; SCt reinstates death penalty. Chavez’s UFW signs agreement with Teamsters Union. Iranians take Amer hostage in Teheran. Inflation reaches its highest rate since 1946.

  22. 01/01/19801980-1989 The Reagan Revolution • http://www.colorado.edu/AmStudies/lewis/2010/decline.htm Reagan defeats Carter, proposes Star Wars defense & increases military spending, Reagan is shot, war on drugs, Sandra Day O'Connor is 1st woman to be named to the S Court. Dow Jones Av falls over 500 points in one day, Berlin Wall comes down, the Cold War ends. George Bush succeeds Reagan as President.

  23. 01/01/19901990 – 1999 The Call for Reform • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/ Pres Bush nominates 2nd black American, Clarence Thomas to S Ct. Clinton becomes Pres. The Internet becomes much more accessible to ordinary Americans, sparking an internet and "dot.com" boom. The government shuts down due to a spat between Pres Clinton and the Rep majority in Congress. Clinton becomes the 1st Dem to be reelected since FDR in 1936, Clinton is impeached & acquitted. Gulf War, welfare reform, budget in surplus.

  24. 01/01/20002000-2010 Recession, war on terrorism, unemployment • http://www.nacs.net/~georgez/recession7908.pdf Stock market crashes. The dot.com boom becomes a bust. Terrorists from Al Qaeda, 9/11, nearly 3,000 persons die. The US attacks the Taliban and the Al Qaeda network in Afghanistan, and a war on terrorism is declared. NASDAQ bottoms out at slightly above the 1000 mark & US is in a recession. US sends troops to Iraq and captures & deposes Saddam Hussein. Economy starts heating up, recession, unemployment above 10%.

  25. Strand 3: Work: Business and corporate philosophies by decade • 01/01/1908 • Henry Ford Assembly Line changes the world • http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ford.htm Ford mass production and a new era in industrial history had begun - the car came to the worker who performed the same task of assembly over and over again. With the introduction and perfection of the process, Ford was able to reduce the assembly time of a Model T from twelve and a half hours to less than six hours. • 03/15/1917 • Eight Hour Act Approved by the US Supreme Court • http://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-acthttp://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-act The US Supreme Court approved the Eight-Hour Act under the threat of a national railway strike. By 1905 the vast majority of Americans worked 12-14 hour days. On Jan 5, 1914, the Ford Motor Company took the radical step of doubling pay to $5 a day and cut shifts from nine hours to eight, resulting in the increase in Ford's productivity, most soon followed suit. The US Adamson Act in 1916 established an eight-hour day with OT • 03/15/1917 • Eight Hour Act Approved by the US Supreme Court • http://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-acthttp://www.answers.com/topic/adamson-act The US Supreme Court approved the Eight-Hour Act under the threat of a national railway strike. By 1905 the vast majority of Americans worked 12-14 hour days. On Jan 5, 1914, the Ford Motor Company took the radical step of doubling pay to $5 a day and cut shifts from nine hours to eight, resulting in the increase in Ford's productivity, most soon followed suit. The US Adamson Act in 1916 established an eight-hour day with OT • 11/21/1927 • Coal Miners union massacred in CO • http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,731219,00.html Picketing coal miners marching under the banner of the Industrial Workers of the World were massacred in the Columbine mine massacre in the company town of Serene, Colorado. • 06/25/1938 • Ban on Child Labor and establishment of 40 hour week • http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/cm20030124ar03p1.htm The Wages and Hours (later Fair Labor Standards) Act is passed, banning child labor and setting the 40-hour work week. The Act went into effect in October 1940, and was upheld in the Supreme Court on 3 February 1941. • 01/01/1941 • The AFL agrees no strikes in defense-related industry plants during wartime • http://www.dartmouth.edu/~socy/pdfs/MDD_Limit_Labor_07.pdf The AFL pledges that there will be no strikes in defense-related industry plants for the duration of the war.

  26. 02/15/1942Smith & Tyler - Evaluation Manual, Tyler's Basic Principles of Curriculum & Instruction • http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/pert/ designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. • 01/01/1960 • Japan product quality soars • http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Pro-Res/Quality-Circles.html 100,000 quality circles in Japan - problem-solving groups in assembly line productions by the WORKERS, dramatic improvements in the quality and economic competitiveness of Japanese goods in the post-World War II years

  27. 01/01/1970 • Total Quality Management - Problem-solving to the base worker • http://www.brecker.com/quality.htmJuran and Deming go to Japan and learn Quality Management strategies, Blue collar workers problem solve using Quality Circles, Statistical Analysis of production lines.

  28. 01/01/1980 • Quality Circles and Total Quality Control in US Industries • http://www.brecker.com/quality.htm by 1980, over one-half of firms in the Fortune 500 had implemented or were planning on implementing quality circles. By the early 1980s, General Motors Corp. had established about 100 quality circles among its Buick, Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Chevrolet, and Fisher Body divisions.

  29. 01/01/1990 • Technology in the workplace - Robotics in the assembly lines, online access to purchasing • http://www.answers.com/topic/educational-technology Since 1990, educational technology has undergone rapid changes, with a significant impact on historical research and learning

  30. 01/01/2001 • Agile Alliance formed - software development • http://www.agilealliance.org/ 2001 Agile Alliance formed to promote "lightweight" software development projects - they emphasize close collaboration between the programmer team and business experts

  31. Strand Four: EducationImportant theories of learning and instruction by decade • 01/01/1900 • 1896-1910 Dewey Experimental lab school • http://www.ul.ie/~philos/vol1/dewey.html How to Think, Scientific approach, experimental lab school, community experiences for students from 1896-1910

  32. 01/01/1901Thorndike's Theory of Connectionism • http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html 1901 application of the quantitative measurement at Columbia University; 1912 Technology of Instruction - Educational Psychology (self-activity, interest, prep, individualization, socialization)

  33. 01/01/1913John B Watson Behaviorist Revolution • http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/commentary.htm In 1913, Watson published the article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" — sometimes called "The Behaviorist Manifesto". In this article, Watson outlined the major features of his new philosophy of psychology, called "behaviorism"

  34. 01/01/1918Kilpatrick's Project Method • http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4954/ The child-centered method asked teachers to position each child at the center of the learning process by focusing activities around the interests of the pupil. William H. Kilpatrick, a professor at Teachers College, outlined the theory of “wholehearted purposeful activity” by a child as the pinnacle of postwar progressive education in the following, widely-read essay, initially published in the Teachers College Record in 1918.

  35. 01/01/1929Piaget - The Child's Conception of the World • http://tip.psychology.org/piaget. html Issues discussed by Piaget: What conceptions of the world does the child naturally form at the different stages of its development and what is their sense of reality?

  36. 01/01/1933 • Ralph Tyler's The Eight-Year Study Plan • http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/8year.html The study had been designed in response to postwar pressures to revise the prevailing college preparatory high school curriculum in order to meet the needs of increasing numbers of students who in earlier years would not have gone beyond elementary school - continuous evaluation within the process of creating instruction designed to produce specific outcomes. • 01/01/1938 • Bagley "Education & the Emergent Man", Essentialism movement • http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1780/Bagley-William-C-1874-1946.html#i Bagley argued against the determinist viewpoint, held by people such as Thorndike, that education played little or no role in the improvement of a person's intelligence. Instead, Bagley asserted that the recently created intelligence tests actually measured the educational opportunity experienced by students rather than their innate ability.

  37. 02/15/1942Smith & Tyler - Evaluation Manual, Tyler's Basic Principles of Curriculum & Instruction • http://my-ecoach.com/project.php?id=12152&project_step=28184 (1942) Smith and Tyler provide evaluation manual which dominates educational evaluation for next quarter century (1949) Ralph Tyler publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction • 02/15/1946 • Edgar Dale - Cone of Experience • http://www.willatworklearning.com/2006/05/people_remember.html Edgar Dale developed the Cone of Experience. The purpose of the cone was to provide a visual example of various teaching levels and materials.(1946)

  38. Toffler’s Third Wave • 01/01/1954 • Skinner - The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching • http://internettime.com/itimegroup/Is%20it%20Time%20to%20Exchange%20Skinner%27s%20Teaching%20Machine B.F. Skinner, the father of operant conditioning, is usually credited with the development of programmed instruction. In his classic 1954 article, The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching, Skinner described the conditions of the typical classroom as particularly adverse to learning. A single teacher can not individually and appropriately reinforce thirty or more students at the same time. • 01/01/1956 • Bloom Taxonomy: Knowledge-Comprehension-Application-Analysis-Synthesis-Evaluation • http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/bloom_taxonomy.html In 1956 Benjamin Bloom and co-authors published their Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the Cognitive Domain. Initiated as a support for cognitive assessment, the Taxonomy was to prove extremely valuable in the specification and analysis of instructional outcomes and the design of instruction to attain them.

  39. Gagne - The Conditions of Learning • http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/1960.html In 1965, Robert Gagne published The Conditions of Learning, a milestone that elaborated the analysis of learning objectives and went on to relate different classes of learning objectives to appropriate instructional designs.Gagne introduced the idea of task analysis to instructional design. Through task analysis, an instructional task could be broken down into sequential steps - hierarchical relationship of tasks and subtasks. • Bruner - Process of Education and Discovery Learning • http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm (1966) Jerome Bruner’s model of Discovery Learning, publishes Toward a Theory of Instruction • 1969-1978 Piaget Genetic Epistemology • http://tip.psychology.org/piaget.html Principles:1. Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of cognitive development. 2. Cognitive development is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation 3. Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of given age

  40. Robert Mager - Criterion Referenced Instruction (CRI) • http://tip.psychology.org/mager.html CRI is based upon the ideas of mastery learning and performance-oriented instruction. • Vygotsky - Mind in Society • http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/quotations/vygotsky.html "Learning is more than the acquisition of the ability to think; it is the acquisition of many specialized abilities for thinking about a variety of things." Vygotsky investigated child development and how this was guided by the role of culture and interpersonal communication. • http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/learning/id/component_display.html (1983) MD Merrill established The Component Display Theory. Component Display Theory specifies four primary presentation forms: rules, examples, recall and practice as well as prerequisites, objectives, helps, mnemonics, and feedback. • http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/HG.htm Gardner's theory argues that intelligence, particularly as it is traditionally defined, does not sufficiently encompass the wide variety of abilities humans display. In his conception, a child who masters multiplication easily is not necessarily more intelligent overall than a child who struggles to do so. The second child may be stronger in another kind of intelligence • http://www.answers.com/topic/educational-technology Since 1990, educational technology has undergone rapid changes, with a significant impact on historical research and learning

  41. Strand 5: Society and culture: Events that determined the thinking of each decade • 01/01/1900 • 1896-1910 Dewey Experimental lab school • http://www.ul.ie/~philos/vol1/dewey.html How to Think, Scientific approach, experimental lab school, community experiences for students from 1896-1910

  42. Six Strand

  43. Fourth Wave: Society and Culture • 01/01/1910 • 1910-1919 The Progressive Era • http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/U.S._Progressive_Party_1912 T Roosevelt runs for President as nominee of Bull Moose Party (Progressive). TR and Taft split Republican vote, and Wilson wins, 1st Dem Pres since Grover Cleveland-1892; World War I begins, the Communists take over Russia; the War to End All Wars ends, Germany is treated poorly in the Treaty of Versailles embittering Hitler;18th (prohibition) ratified.19th Amendment, (women right to vote), Selective Service Act creates draft • 01/01/1920 • 1920-1929 Roaring 20’s, Jazz Age, prohibition, mass consumer economy, Black Tuesday • http://www.besthistorysites.net/USHistory_Roaring20s.shtml Characterized by feelings of disillusionment and alienation. A sense of rebellion developed and the Victorian idea of decency was considered hypocritical. Writers began to write frankly about sexuality. Women voted, KKK, evolution debates, stock market crash, gangsters, racketeering, murder (Al Capone)

  44. 1930 -1939 The New Deal Landslide • 01/01/1930 • 1930 – 1939 The New Deal Landslide • http://www.sagehistory.net/deprnewdeal/NewDealSummary.htm FDR is inaugurated as President. Although FDR campaigns on a platform of balancing the budget, he begins his First 100 Days by closing the banks, engaging in deficit spending & beginning the New Deal. Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany with unlimited power. The Supreme Court holds unconstitutional aspects of the New Deal, and a state minimum wage law. FDR is reelected by a landslide; World War II begins when Germany invades Poland • 06/25/1938 • Ban on Child Labor and establishment of 40 hour week • http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/cm20030124ar03p1.htm The Wages and Hours (later Fair Labor Standards) Act is passed, banning child labor and setting the 40-hour work week. The Act went into effect in October 1940, and was upheld in the Supreme Court on 3 February 1941. • 01/01/1950 • 1950-1959 The Baby Boomers • http://www.america.gov/st/educ-english/2008/June/20080610231344eaifas0.6864108.html The end of World War II brought thousands of young servicemen back to America to pick up their lives and start new families in new homes with new jobs. With an energy never before experienced, American industry expanded to meet peacetime needs. Americans began buying goods not available during the war, which created corporate expansion and jobs. Growth everywhere. The baby boom was underway.

  45. 1980 to 1999 • 01/01/1980 • 1980-1989 The Reagan Revolution • http://www.colorado.edu/AmStudies/lewis/2010/decline.htm Reagan defeats Carter, proposes Star Wars defense & increases military spending, Reagan is shot, war on drugs, Sandra Day O'Connor is 1st woman to be named to the S Court. Dow Jones Av falls over 500 points in one day, Berlin Wall comes down, the Cold War ends. George Bush succeeds Reagan as President. • 01/01/1990 • 1990-1999 The Electronic Age, World Wide Web 1992 • http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/About/Web-en.html 100 million people on the internet, US played the role of world policeman, Gulf War, • Personal computers, laptops, cell phones, IPods.

  46. Strand 6: Religious :Mixture of traditional religions into one All- faith worship ( Black) • Rise in non-denominational churches. • Decline in traditional religious service. • An increase in religious dissatisfaction.