Lecture 13 Verb and Verb Phrase. Objectives: 1.A classification of verbs 2. Transitive verbs, intransitive verbs and linking verbs 3. Dynamic verbs and stative verbs 4. Finite and non-finite verbs. Lecture 13 Verb and Verb Phrase. 1. Classification of verbs
Lecture 13 Verb and Verb Phrase Objectives: 1.A classification of verbs 2. Transitive verbs, intransitive verbs and linking verbs 3. Dynamic verbs and stative verbs 4. Finite and non-finite verbs
Lecture 13 Verb and Verb Phrase 1. Classification of verbs According to the different roles played in the formation of verb phrases, verbs are divided into two major classes: Main verbs (Notional verbs) and Auxiliaries
1. Classification of verbs • 1) Main verbs:functioning as the head and indicating the basic meaning of a verb phrase. • 2) Verb phrase include a simple verb phrase (a main verb) and a complex verb phrase (an auxi. + a main verb) used as predicate in a sentence • ---We'd better talk her out of her plan. --The car stopped outside the hotel.
3) Auxiliaries • Auxiliaries include Primary Auxiliary, Model Auxiliary and Semi-auxiliary. The grammatical function of auxiliaries is to help main verbs express various grammatical and modal meanings, e.g: • There must be some mistake. • Would you please open the door for me? • Joan has seen the movie.
3) Auxiliaries • Auxiliaries include • Primary Auxi. (be, do , have) • Model Auxi. (can,could, may, …) • Semi-auxi.( have to, seem to…)
3) Auxiliaries The grammatical function of auxiliaries is to help main verbs to express various grammatical and model meanings such as progressive (be doing) or perfective aspect(have done) and obligation or the removal of obligation. (must do, have to do)
(1)Auxiliary “do” Auxiliary “do” is used to help the main verb to express negative meaning (don’t, doesn’t, didn’t) or to form questions or to help to express emphatic affirmative.
(2) Modal auxiliaries • It is agreed that there are 13 modal auxiliaries in English. They are: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to, dare, need, used to. They are usually used to indicate the speaker's predication, attitude, etc, rather than simple fact.
(2) Modal auxiliaries • In a verb phrase, only one auxiliary may appear and they are always followed by infinitives without to. The past forms of the modal auxiliaries do not indicate past time in most of the cases, rather, they indicate the speaker or the subject in question is polite, tentative, or uncertain about something.
(2) Modal auxiliaries • --You might/may have finished the work last week. • --I can climb the cliff. • --You must understand that we mean business.
(3) Semi-auxiliaries • Semi-auxiliaries are those verbs that are considered a special type between auxiliaries and main verbs. Semi-auxiliaries, such as have to and seem to, can help the main verb to form the complex verb phrase and express the modal meaning, they can also function as main verbs when preceded by other auxiliaries.
2. Transitive verbs, intransitive verbs and linking verbs • According to elements that may follow them, verbs may be divided into transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, and linking verbs. • 1) Transitive verbs must be followed by objects: • He lacked teaching experience. • Why don't you buy yourself a new dress?
2) Intransitive verbs • Intransitive verbs do not require an object: • The president is speaking. • My grandfather lived with us for 15 years.
3) Linking verbs • Linking verbs are followed by a subject complement • --The milk went sour • --He died a beggar. • --He looked as if he hadn't slept very well.
3) Linking verbs Many of the main verbs may belong to more than one of the three verb classes mentioned above, e.g. smell, in the following sentences: • --The fish is fresh from water. You don't have to smell it. • This dish smells delicious.
3. Dynamic verbs and stative verbs • According to the meaning they express, main verbs can be dynamic verbs and stative verbs. Dynamic verbs are verbs that refer to actions. Stative verbs are verbs that refer to states, that is to say, to a relatively stable state of affairs.
1) Dynamic verbs • Dynamic verbs can be sub-classified into three categories: • Durative verbs • Transitional verbs • Momentary verbs
(1) Durative verbs • Durative verbs refer to actions which may last for a period of time, e.g. • --They talked and talked until midnight. • --It rained on and off for five days
(2) Transitional verbs Transitional verbs indicate moving or change of position, e.g. • The weather is changing for the better. • I turned my head and saw the profile.
(3) Momentary verbs • Momentary verbs refer to actions which only last for a moment, e.g. • We have friends all over the world. • The rule applies to everyone. • The house belongs to my brother.
4. Finite and non-finite verbs • If a verb should agree in person and number with its grammatical subject, this verb is called finite verb, e.g • --How in the world did they manage? • --I never would have guessed.
1)Nonfinite verbs Nonfinite verbs do not take different forms according to the number of the subject of the clause or the tense of the clause. There are three kinds of non-finite verbs: infinitives, -ing participle, and -ed participle.
1)Nonfinite verbs • arranged to see them the next morning. • I appreciate your inviting me to your party. • Please keep us informed of the latest developments.