Lecture 5 Verb and verb phrase. Classification of verbs 2. A survey of tense, aspect, voice and mood 3. Tense and aspect:. Verbs. What is a Verb? A verb is a part of speech that expresses existence, action, or occurrence . There is a book on the table. He is studying Japanese now.
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Lecture 5 Verb and verb phrase Classification of verbs 2. A survey of tense, aspect, voice and mood 3. Tense and aspect:
Verbs • What is a Verb? • A verb is a part of speech that expresses existence, action, or occurrence. • There is a book on the table. • He is studying Japanese now. • Father bought me a new cap. • This is the most important part of a sentence. A sentence can have only one word as long as that word is a verb.
Classification of verbs Main verb (notional verb, the head and indicating the basic meaning of a verb phrase) and auxiliary (to help main verbs ) transitive verb main verb intransitive verb verb linking verb primary auxiliary auxiliary modal auxiliary semi-auxiliary
Classification of main verb • Transitive verbs vs. intransitive verbs vs. linking verbs (copula) The fish is fresh. You don’t have to smell it. The milk is going bad. It smells.This dish smells delicious.
Classification of auxiliary • Primary Auxiliaries :be, do, have We are learning English. (help to form the progressive aspect or the passive voice ) She didn’t come back last night. (help to form negative and interrogative sentences ) I have finished my homework. (help to form the perfective or the perfective progressive aspect.) • Modal Auxiliaries:13
2. Dynamic verbs vs. stative (non-progressive) verbs Dynamic verbs are verbs that refer to actions. Stative verbs are verbs that refer to states, including main verb be and have, verbs meaning being and having, verbs referring to a sense perception, verbs referring to a feeling, a state of mind or an opinion. The workers are building a new railroad. This rule applies toeveryone. She doesn’t hear very well. She became angry at the words. I think you are crazy. Be quiet, I’m thinking. P.165, 10A
3. Finite verbs vs. non-finite verbs 4. Regular verbs vs. irregular verbs 5. Single-word verbs vs. phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs • A phrasal verb is a verb that is composed of two or more words. Some can be used as transitive verbs, while some intransitive.
Three categories: • 1. Verb + preposition (transitive) We must look into the matter immediately. He couldn’t account for his long absence from school. more: apply for, break into, come across, insist on, consist of, do without, complain of, look after, adjust to, allow for, ask for, call on, long for, listen to, care for, resort to, speak of, etc.
Compare: She answered my question. She will answer for his safety. She attended the meeting. She attended on the wounded. She called me. She called on me. She called to me. I know her. I know of her.
2. Verb + adverb particle A particle, in grammar, is a function word ,but does not fit into the main parts of speech (i.e. noun, verb, adverb). Particles do not change. It is mostly used for words that help to encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood or case).The infinitive 'to' in 'to fly' is an example of a particle, although it can also act as a preposition. I'm going to Spain next week.
Adverbial particle: up, down, on, off, in, out, over, away • A fire broke out during the night.The meeting has been called off. Compare: The lights went out. He put on his coat and went out. The wind blew up the valley. He blew up the bridge. More: back up, call off, give up, hand in, hand out, pick up, take in, turn on, turn off, set up, show off, turn up etc.
3. Verb + adverb particle + preposition Please keep out of her affairs. Will this enthusiasm carry over to the next week?I don’t want to come down with the flu again.I will have to fill in for Wally until he gets back. • More: catch up with, go in for, look up to, run out of, live up to, look out for, etc.
4. verb + noun + preposition and verb + noun • She soon realized that she was being made fun of.She indulged in luxury and made a made a mess of her life. • More: get rid of, put an end to, keep pace with, make a fool of, keep an eye on, give rise to, etc.
Attention: • Phrasal verbs are verbal idioms, different form simple verbal combinations.
2011 • 77. Everyone is surprised that she has fallen out with her boy friend. The underlined part means _____. • A. left B. quarreled • C. attacked D. defeated
2010. • 67. During the summer vacation, kids are often seen hanging _____ in the streets. • A. about B. on C. over D. out • 78. He listened hard but still couldn't ____ what they were talking about. • A. make over B. make up • C. make upon D. make out
2009 70. The football match was _____ because of the heavy rain. • A. called over B. called up • C. called out D. called off • 77. The drink was packaged in champagne bottles and was being _____ as the real stuff. • A. passed out B. passed by • C. passed over D. passed off
2008 69. The company has capitalized ________ the error of judgment made by its business competitor. • A. in B. over C. with D. on • 75. At first Jim was not quite clear what he was going to do after university, but now he seems ________ on becoming a computer programmer. • A. fit B. set C. Disposed D. decided • P.172, 10B & 10C
A survey of tense, aspect 1. Tense • Tense is a grammatical form associated with verbs that tells of the distinctions of time. It shows the relationship between the form of the verb and the time of the action or state it describes.
Differences between tenses and time • Time is a concept universally existent with three divisions: past time, present time and future time. and tense may be a grammatical device or vocabulary device specific to a language. English verbs have two tense: the present tense and the past tense.
2. Aspect • Aspect is a grammatical term indicating whether an action or state at a given time is viewed as complete or incomplete. • English verbs have two aspects: • the progressive aspect and the perfective aspect.
A combination of the two tense and the two aspects makes it possible for a finite verb phrase to take the following eight forms (with the main verb play as an example): • EENSE-ASPECT • Simple Present plays Simple Past played Present Progressive is playing Past Progressive was playing Present Perfective has played Past Perfective had played Present Perfective Progressive has been playing Past Perfective Progressive had been playing