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Three Branches of Philosophy:. Epistemology: How do we know? . Metaphysics: What is the nature of the universe ?. Ethics: What is morally “right ?” . What do you do if…. ?. You get an invitation to go to Lake Tahoe for the same weekend you promised to babysit for your neighbor?.

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Three Branches of Philosophy:

Epistemology: How do we know?

Metaphysics: What is the nature of the universe?

Ethics: What is morally “right ?”



You get an invitation to go to Lake Tahoe for the same weekend you promised to babysit for your neighbor?


You witness a friend stealing another friend’s iPod? weekend you promised to babysit for


You find a pair of expensive sunglasses on the table at In-N- Out Burger, left there by a previous customer?



You are waiting for your math teacher to return to his room and you notice that he has left his final exam lying out in plain sight?

4x +(3)y/43=5z


You and you notice that he has left his final exam lying out in plain sight?find yourself alone with your best friend’s girlfriend/boyfriend, on whom you have a secret crush, and she/he makes a move on you?


Your parents go out of town for the weekend and tell you not to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

With a lot of beer.

And a lot more friends.


Lake Tahoe to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

iPod

Sunglasses

BMW

Math test

Crush

Parents


How do we decide what to do? to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?


MORALS AND ETHICS to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?


Character to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

Good

Morality

Evil

Ethics

“Moral Compass”

Discipline

Decisions

Conscience

Sin

Right

Karma

Values

Wrong

Confession

Culture


Moral/ethical thinking affects our relationships to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?


Moral/ethical issues arise in the workplace to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?


We find examples of morals and ethics in public life to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?


City Council Members Indicted IN Real Estate Scam to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

Mountain View, Monday

Three members of the city council accused last year o buying city property at reduced cost

In the daily news:

TEENS ARRESTED AFTER FOOD FIGHT

Los Altos, yesterday

Dozens of students were arrested at Los Altos High School early Wednesday after engaging in a high-spirited hurling of mashed potatoes in the school cafeteria.


Morality and Ethics--is there a difference? to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

Morality generally defines personal character and is based on deep values

Ethics is generally defined as the social system in which morals are applied. In other words, codes of behavior expected by the group or institution.

The two can collide:

* Court of Law

* Medicine

* Work situation

* Other examples?


Everyday moral/ethical questions: to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

How can I tell what “the right thing” is?

Is it always right to tell the truth?

Do I have an obligation to help people in need?

Why does it really matter if I “do right?”

What do I gain from behaving morally or ethically?

What do I sacrifice from behaving morally or ethically?

How do other people’s moral/ethical decisions affect mine?


Theories and Systems of Morality & Ethics to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?


Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development to have friends over, but your friends find out that your parents are gone and they show up?

Stage One: Respect for power and punishment-- I will do what I want as long as I don’t get in trouble

Stage Two: Looking out for #1-- I will do what benefits me; I’ll give if I get

Stage Three: “Good Boy” “Nice Girl”-- I please others to gain their approval

Stage Four: Law and Order-- I conform; I do my duty to maintain social order; people who break rules should be punished

Stage Five: Justice through Democracy-- I actively work to change laws that are unfair; I work within the system

Stage Six: Guiding Moral Principles-- I do what I know is right even if the law says otherwise; I am always true to my values


Information for next five slides from the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation

Ethical Relativism:

No principles are universally valid. All moral principles are valid relative to culture. The rules of the society serve as a standard.

Strength--Tolerance/Understanding of other cultures

Weakness--Confuses what ought to be done with what is currently done


Divine Command Theory: National Fellowship Foundation

Moral standards depend on God who is all-knowing. Any act that conforms to the law of God is right; an act that breaks God’s law is wrong.

Strengths--Standards are from a higher authority than humans. Gives a reason for moral behavior.

Weakness--Depends on interpretation of God’s will.


Utilitarianism: National Fellowship Foundation

Actions are judged right or wrong solely by their consequences. Right actions are those that produce the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness. Each person’s happiness is equally important.

Strength--promotes human well-being and attempts to lessen human suffering.

Weakness--One person’s good can be another’s evil. Hard to predict accurately all consequences.


Deontology: National Fellowship Foundation

Emphasis is on moral rules and duty. Moral norms go for everyone in the society. Emphasis on justice and kind acts. Focus is on what one DOES to be moral.

Strength--Moral rules are universal

Weaknesses—Can be inflexible in some situations. Outcome might not be positive in every case. Rules can be abstract--who decides what is moral?


Virtue Ethics: National Fellowship Foundation

Morals are internal. It seeks to produce good people who act well out of spontaneous goodness. Emphasizes living well and achieving excellence. Note: Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on this system as the desired goal.

Strength--Internalizes moral behavior. Promotes a positive goal for society.

Weakness—May be unrealistic. Offers no guidance for resolving ethical dilemmas.


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