THE EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT OF CALIFORNIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT OF CALIFORNIA

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  1. THE EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT OF CALIFORNIA

  2. We know things now that the Spaniards didn’t in 1760

  3. And, as students (all of us), we are seekers of knowledge

  4. However, what we seek is scattered in a thousand places

  5. But, then, we have many resources

  6. We gather scattered things to make a coherent whole

  7. Setting the stage--CaliforniaThe early period • ~~40,000 to 340 years BP

  8. Early hominid history • N. America and Asia collided ~25 million years BP and B. Strait becomes a sometimes bridge • Out of Africa ~~5 million years BP • to N.A. ~40,000 BP—maybe several times

  9. The Spanish Period • ~1500-1700’s Spanish slowly spread through central and South America • 1542-3 Cabrillo explored parts of West coast • 1760’s conflict between sects within Spanish Catholic church leads to ascendancy of Franciscan order • 1769 Don Gaspar de Portola’ left Alta California to explore northward, find Monterey Bay, and claim all for Spain

  10. Setting the stage—Californiawhat was known in 1700 • Much of California’s coast had been examined by Spanish ships • A grand bay was reported at Monterey – 36.7o N

  11. Setting the stagenavigation technology Latitude could be determined accurately Longitude was a guess

  12. First PartPortola’s orders • Take a party of ~200 to San Diego • Establish a presidio-a place to garrison solders

  13. First jobget to San Diego • Set out in early spring • Never been done • ~~4 months to San Diego; several lost • Leave most there to build a presidio and explore northward

  14. North to Monterey 1 • Taking • Navigator-map maker • Two priests • A squad of Catalonian solders + officer • A scout • Proceeded northward mostly along the coast to ‘LA’

  15. In Los Angles (1769 -- 1948) • Portola’ Trek—reenactment of the exploration of California--1948 • Part of California Centennial Celebration

  16. North to Monterey 1 • Continuing north along coast to SLO • North of 35o N reports were of a rugged, impassible coast • Turned inland not knowing what to expect

  17. North to Monterey 2 • They found the Salinas River Valley • Totally unknown and unexpected • This took them all the way to Monterey • With water, easy travel, abundant game

  18. Monterey 1 • 36.7o N • No ship • No magnificent harbor

  19. Monterey 2 • Portola’ explored further north • ~108 days saw the South end of San Francisco Bay from a mountainous area • “A bay to hold all the ships of Spain”

  20. The end of Portola’s first exploration • After another month of fruitless exploration and illness • Began the return to San Diego • Route became ‘the Kings Highway’; became the mission route established by Father Junipero Sera; became (almost) highway 101

  21. 1769-1847 • U.S. mainly involved in the East U.S. and southern coasts • The interior of North America was primarily a dry, barren barrier • Spain, then Mexico (after the war of independence) was involved only with southern and coastal California – San Francisco was the north-most administrative center

  22. 1848 • End of the Mexican-American war • California ceded to the U.S. as settlement

  23. GOLD! • 1848 – discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill on the American River (not first)

  24. California’s early population • 1847 – European population ~ 10,000 • 1850 – European population ~ 50,000 in the mines; probably total of ~100,000

  25. Ways to the gold fields--1 • Ship to San Francisco

  26. The hazards and problems

  27. Ways to the gold fields -- 2 and 3 Overland • Oregon Trail • To Oregon then south by Shasta or K. Falls • Several branches to Immigrant (Donner) Pass • Santa Fe Trail • Branch to Mojave to Tehachapi Pass • Branch to Mojave to Cajon Pass to LA • Branch to Blythe and Salton Sea to LA • To Yuma to San Diego to LA

  28. The Railroads • 1870’s and 80’s • Most of the passes used earlier – first was Donner, 1869, directly to Sacramento and San Francisco

  29. Note the affects of • Gold • Passes • Routes across the deserts

  30. Pre WWII • California markets and California as a whole not politically important • California oil fields began mostly 1900-1920 but petroleum not all that important--------yet; and the Gulf coast oil fields were much closer to the eastern markets

  31. WWII and following • Pacific theater of WWII • Ship building • Aircraft industries • Oil for a high technology war • Entertainment industries • Beginnings of huge population influx • High technology