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IMPERIALISM . European Imperialism in Africa and Asia. African Geography. Sahara Desert in north Hottest and (3 rd ) Largest Desert Center of Continent very tropical Rainforests Tropics, land between Tropic of Cancer (North) and Tropic of Capricorn (South). Africa is HUGE.

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European Imperialism in Africa and Asia

african geography
African Geography
  • Sahara Desert in north
    • Hottest and (3rd) Largest Desert
  • Center of Continent very tropical
    • Rainforests
    • Tropics, land between Tropic of Cancer (North) and Tropic of Capricorn (South)
africa is huge
Africa is HUGE
  • Africa is also very diverse
Africa has TONS of natural resources
    • Diamonds
    • Gold
    • Silver
    • Iron
    • Copper
    • Oil
    • Rubber
Europe had not conquered much of Africa by mid 1800s. Land they had taken over was near coast. Why had Europe failed to conquer Africa before late 1800s?
why europe had failed to conquer africa
Why Europe had failed to conquer Africa
  • Disease!
    • Africans had been introduced to European diseases, didn’t die off like Native Americans
    • Africa had diseases of its own. Tropical diseases like Malaria, Yellow Fever, and Sleeping Sickness killed great numbers of Europeans
      • Discovery of Quinine helped prevent Malaria, greatly reduced threat of disease to Europeans
  • Europeans unable to defeat powerful African armies
  • Also Europeans had been unable to travel efficiently
technology enables european conquest
Technology enables European Conquest
  • Steamboats enabled Europeans to travel up Africa’s navigatable rivers
  • Maxim Machine Gun enables Europeans to overpower Africans
ideas fuel quest for colonies
Ideas Fuel Quest for Colonies
  • Belief in European Superiority
    • Social Darwinism – Non-Europeans considered to be less developed
    • Europeans believed they had a right (maybe even a duty) to colonize and “civilize” other countries
  • Nationalism creates desire for colonies
    • Colonies viewed as measure of the greatness of a country
stanley maps the interior of africa
Stanley Maps the interior of Africa
  • European Missionary, Dr. Livingston, “lost” in central Africa
  • Stanley hired to find him
    • “Dr. Livingston, I presume?” – famous greeting from Stanley to Livingston
  • Stanley embarks on more expeditions to map central Africa
    • Mapped Congo River
  • His discoveries sparked European interest
scramble for africa
Scramble for Africa
  • Stanley’s missions, along with other discoveries (diamonds and gold discovered in South Africa) provoke European powers to start grabbing territory in Africa
    • France starts colonizing North Africa
    • England colonizes Egypt, Nile River, South Africa
  • Mad dash for territory and competing claims almost leads to war
  • Berlin Conference called to prevent conflict
berlin conference
Liberia and Ethiopia only countries free from European ControlBerlin Conference
  • All major European powers in attendance
    • No African represen-tatives
  • Continent of Africa divided by European powers without thought to African ethnic groups
king leopold ii and the congo
King Leopold II and the Congo
  • King Leopold II desperately wants colony to make Belgium great
  • King Leopold II of Belgium hires Stanley to make treaties with African tribes giving Leopold personal control of the Congo
    • Uses tricks, force to gain control
    • His rule made official by Berlin Conference
leopold s brutality in the congo
Leopold’s Brutality in the Congo
  • Leopold uses his new African colonies to gather natural resources
    • RUBBER becomes incredibly profitable
  • Leopold II is incredibly brutal towards Africans in Congo
    • Cutting off of hands
    • Over 10 million Congolese die during less than 20 years
    • Colony taken from him in 1908
boers and british fight in south africa
Boers and British fight in South Africa
  • The Dutch had claimed Cape of Good Hope in 1600s
    • Boers are Dutch Settlers
  • British take over colony in 1800s
    • Boers move north, create independent colonies
  • Discovery of Gold and Diamonds creates conflict, leads to Boer War
  • War was incredibly brutal
    • Captured Boers put in concentration camps; almost 15,000 die in camps
  • Britain wins, takes control of entire area
managing colonies direct vs indirect control
Managing Colonies Direct vs Indirect Control
  • Indirect Control
    • Existing rulers in colonized areas maintained power over day to day activities
    • Colonized peoples trained in European style of government
  • Direct Control
    • Africans viewed as unable to govern, European countries sent officials, did not train locals.
    • Africans viewed almost as children, Europeans as parents
      • Paternalism: people in power restricting freedoms and rights of subordinates for the subordinates best interest
lasting impact
Lasting Impact

What AfricaMight have Looked Like

  • Africa divided artificially and unnaturally
    • Ethnic groups split into various countries
    • Some countries contained long time enemies leading to civil conflicts or even genocides
  • Positive effects?
    • Modernization of Africa

What Africa Actually Looks Like

imperialism in asia
Imperialism in Asia
  • European powers also rushed to colonize Asia
  • Good for plantations, growing cash crops (sugar, cocoa, rubber, etc)
  • Dutch take Indonesia
  • French take “Indochina”
    • Present Day Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
  • US Controls Philippines
  • British control Malay Peninsula (Myanmar/Burma, Malaysia) and India
britain in india
Britain in India
  • British had a presence in India since 1600s.
  • British Presence increases as ruling dynasty collapses.
    • British East India Company becomes most powerful entity in India
  • EIC ruled with little interference from British Government
    • Even had an army
    • Sepoys: Indian soldiers in EIC’s army
india jewel in the crown of british empire
India “Jewel in the Crown” of British Empire
  • India was most valued colony
  • British completely control Indian economy
  • Produced significant raw materials like cotton and opium
  • Indians begin to resent British rule
    • British are racist towards Indians
    • British try to convert them to Christianity
british offend indians leads to mutiny
British Offend Indians, leads to mutiny
  • Sepoy’s learn that rifle cartridges are greased with beef and pork fat
    • Offensive to all major groups of Indians
      • Cows sacred to Hindus, Muslims do not eat pork
sepoy mutiny
Sepoy Mutiny
  • Some Sepoys refuse rounds, are jailed, causes massive revolt
  • Indians fail to unify: Muslims and Hindus fight amongst each other for power. Princes remain loyal to British.
  • Takes a year for British to put down
  • British Crowntakes over controlof Indiafrom EIC
  • Known as British Raj
nationalism rises in india
Nationalism Rises in India
  • Mutiny increases British distrust of Indians
  • Racist attitudes, policies increase
    • British made 20x more money that Indians for same job
    • Indians not allowed high level positions in Gov / Army
  • Indian Nationalism Grows
    • Indian National Congress
    • Muslim League
opium swings trade relations in china
Opium Swings Trade Relations in China
  • China had many products European powers wanted
    • Tea, Silk, Porcelain
  • Europeans have little the Chinese want (only silver)
    • China very self sufficient. Plentiful natural resources
    • China has no interest in trading with Europe, until…
    • Addictive narcotic made from Poppy Plants
  • British begin importing massive amounts of Opium into China
    • 12 Million Chinese addicted to Opium
opium wars
Opium Wars
  • China asks British to stop importing Opium, Britain refuses.
  • Britain’s modern navy easily defeats Chinese outdated ships. China suffers humiliating defeat
  • Treat of Nanjing
    • Gives British the island of Hong Kong
    • Britain gains access to more cities to trade in
    • China pays Britain 21 million dollars (probably about 2 billion dollars now
china faces internal problems
China faces Internal Problems:
  • Numerous problems in mid 1800s
    • Extreme population growth left many people hungry
    • Natural Disasters (first droughts then floods) made food problems worse
    • Humiliating defeat in Opium War
    • Foreigners take advantage of Qing weakness, open “Spheres of Influence”
      • “Sphere of Influence” – area whereforeign power has control over tradeand other economic activity
      • Foreigners also exempt from Chineselaws in these “Spheres of Influence”
  • Rulers seen as inefficient and corrupt
    • Lost “Mandate of Heaven”
hong xiuquan leads taiping rebellion
Hong Xiuquan Leads Taiping Rebellion
  • Hong Xiuquan starts an anti-Qing movement to build a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” (Taiping translates to “Great Peace”)
  • Hong Xiuquan believed himself to be the brother of Jesus Christ, called by God to lead rebellion and purge China of devils
  • Movement included many social reforms
    • “Property in common” (communistic)
    • Equality for women
    • Also replacement of traditional Chinese religions with Chinese form of Christianity
taiping rebellion chinese civil war
Taiping Rebellion: Chinese Civil War
  • Massive peasant army (over 1 million people) takes over areas of south
  • Capture city of Nanjing, declare it capital
  • Qing get help from British and French, eventually overpower the Taiping
  • Taiping Rebellion lasted for 15 years and saw over 20 millions deaths
boxer rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
  • Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
  • Against extensive foreign influence and rise of Christianity in China
    • Known as The Boxers
    • Boxers believe rituals make them impervious to foreign weapons
  • Boxers surround and attack foreign sphere of influence
  • Foreign powers create combinedforce that eventually defeats the Boxers
    • Troops from 8 countries involved
japan opens to trade modernizes
Japan Opens to Trade, Modernizes
  • Japan had been closed to trade with west for hundreds of years
  • US Commodore Matthew Perry took warships into Tokyo Harbor and “Open Japan” to foreign trade
    • Weakness shown by leaders develops into movement to restore power of Emperor
  • New emperor takes control of Japan from Shoguns
    • End of Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Emperor decides to modernize
    • Meiji Era
  • Japan industrializes, modernizes government, army, navy
    • Becomes most powerful military in Asia
    • Also takes on imperialistic model from Europeans
japan s wars of expansion
Japan’s Wars of Expansion
  • Sino-Japanese War
    • Japan looks to expand into Korea, China also has interests in China. Eventually war breaks out over peninsula
    • Japan’s modern navy destroys China, takes Korea and Taiwan
      • Korea becomes part of Japan
  • Russo-Japanese War
    • Japan wants to expand into Manchuria, launches surprise attacks against Russians
    • Japan destroys Russia’s navy in war